ana 3

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ana 3
2013-12-05 00:12:53

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  1. transverse tubules
    transmitting nerve implse
  2. filament
    the arrangement of the filament is responsible for the striations and banding patterns of the fiber--do not extend the entire length of the fiber they are arranges in compartments called sarcomere
  3. sarcomere
    the functional unit of skeletal muscle and region between two z-lines
  4. z-line
    transverse narrow zone of dense material
  5. a-band
    dark dense area formed by the overlapping of the thin and thick filaments
  6. I-bands
    light colored  less dense area composed only of the thin filaments
  7. H-band
    narrow zone in the center of the A-band containing only thick filaments
  8. thin filaments
    main composed if the protein actin
  9. actin filaments
    is in a double stranded coil
  10. tropomyosin
    is a protein arranged in strands loosely attached to the actin
  11. troponin
    protein located at regular intervals on the tropomyosin
  12. thick filaments
    made up of the protein myosin and myosin is shaped like a golf club with the tails run parallel and heads will project out those are the cross bridges cross-bridges have actin binding sites
  13. sliding filament theory
    when the sarcomere shortens thick and thin filaments don't change  length  rather they just slide past each other
  14. motor unit
    the motor neuron together with the fibers it stimulates
  15. polarized potential
    has an uneven distribution of electrical changes
  16. resting membrane potential
    • has + positive outside
    •      - negative  inside
  17. contracted state
    when the impulse end gets to cause the synaptic vesicle to rupture and release acetylcholine
  18. acetylcholine
    defuses across the synapse and causes the sodium channels to open

    now sodium moves into  the cell +positive and -negative attract
  19. depolarized
    • equal not a difference in electrical charge but sodium keeps moving in until we get to reverse polarity 
    • actin potential-nerve impulse
    • neg out pos in
  20. acetycholinesterase
    enzyme that breaks down acetycholine not permeable to Na+ but now it is open or permeable to K+ potassium
  21. repolarized
    returns to the resting potential

    impulse moves along the cell membrane down the T-tubule to the sarcoplassmic reticulum
  22. when the impulse gets to the reticulum it causes calcium ions

    which have been stored there to be released to the cytoplasma
    then the calcium binds to the tropinin which causes the tropinin to shift 

    and expose the binding myosine binding sites on the actin

    now the cross-bridges attach to the actinand will pull the actin filiment inward
  23. oxygen dept
    the amount of oxygen that needs to be payed back
  24. all or none principal
    an individual muscle fiber will contract to its fullest extent or not extend at all
  25. stimulus =3 kinds
    • any force that affects the exitability of a muscle or a nerve
    • 1.threshold=the weekest stimulus tha can exite a muscle to contract
    • 2.subthreshold=will not intiate contraction
    • 3.maximal=stimulus that excites all the motor units of the muscle
  26. refractory period
    time after a stimulus during which a 2nd stimulus wil not cause a contraction

    repolarization has not occured
  27. twitch
    one brief contraction following a stimulus
  28. myogram= 3 periods
    • record of a muscle contraction
    • 1.latent period-between the application of the stimulus and the beginning of he contraction
    • 2.contraction-shortening muscle
    • 3.relaxation period- muscle is lengthening
  29. Tetanus
    when 2 stimulus are applied and the 2nd is delayed until the refractory period is over

    skeletal muscle will respond to both stimuli

    if the 2nd stimuli is applied after the refractory period but before the muscle is finished relaxing the 2nd contraction will be stronger than the first

    it is a sustained forcefull contraction without relaxation resulting from a series of stimuli iin rapid succession
  30. wave summation
    the increased strength of contraction

    that result when stimuli is followed in rapid succession
  31. muscle tone
    the continual level of some degree of contraction of a muscle
  32. treppe
    condition on which a muscle contracts more  forcefully after its contracted several times
  33. isotonic
    action in which the muscle tone or tention remains  the same but the length changes movement
  34. isometric
    the tention changes but he length does not NO MOVEMENT
  35. CARDIAC muscle
    only in the heart=striated ,branched , involuntary

    differences= I..intercalculated disks- transverse thickening of the sarcolemma where the fibers connect do 2 things

    • 1.provide a strong adhersion between the cells preventing them to pull it apart when the muscle contracts
    • 2. they have  a low electrical resistance and impulse canbe conducted from cell to cell

    • II.times of contraction
    • III. source of stimulation
  36. SMOOTH muscle
    non striated , cells are spindal shaped with  a single neucleus

    still contain actin and myosin but not as orderly arranged

    • ex.
    • walls of the stomach
    • blood vessels ect.
  37. disorder= fibrosis
    formation of fibrous tissue where it nearly doesnot exist
  38. disorder=fibrositis
    inflamation of fibrous tissues
  39. disorder=muscular dystrophy
    • hereditary disease of muscle
    • characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells
  40. disorders=myasthenia gravis
    weakness of skeletal muscle and fatigue resulting from improper neuro muscular transmission
  41. disorder=butulism
    food piosoning
  42. spasm
    sudden invouuntary contraction
  43. cramp
    painful spasmatic contraction of a muscle
  44. convulsion
    violent involuntary contraction of a group of muscles
  45. fibrillation
    uncordinated contaction of individual fibers

    thus preventing smooth contraction of the muscle  = cardiac 
  46. tic or twitch
    spasmatic twitching involuntary by muscle that are usually vonumtary
  47. rigor mortis
    state of contracting all the muscles after death