Central Topics in Cognitive Neuroscience

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Central Topics in Cognitive Neuroscience
2013-11-28 09:57:52
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Central Topics in Cognitive Neuroscience
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  1. The left visual hemifield is seen by?
    The nasal left retina and the temporal right retina.
  2. The right visual hemifield is seen by?
    The right nasal retina and the temporal left retina.
  3. What visual attributes does V1 (area 17, striate cortex, calcarine cortex) have?
    Elementary features of objects (orientation, edges, direction of movement of edges).
  4. What visual attributes does V2&V3 have?
    Integrations of elementary features, perception of simple shapes (combinations of orientations, contours, texture).
  5. What visual attributes does V4 have?
  6. What visual attributes does V5/MT have?
    Direction of motion
  7. Extra striate cortex involves what areas?
    area V2, V3, V4, V5/MT
  8. Higher-order cortical areas involve?
    Inferior temporal cortex and posterior parietal cortex.
  9. In inferior temporal cortex there are some areas that respond to certain biologically relevant stimulus categories, what areas are there?
    • FFA - Fusiform face area (face)
    • EBA - Extrastriate body area (body)
    • PPA - Parahippocampal area (places)
  10. Explain the dorsal pathway?
    • (magnocellular) (where-pathway)
    • projects towards parietal cortex
    • carries information about stimulus
    • motion and localization within visual space
  11. Explain the ventral pathway?
    • (parvocellular) (what-pathway)
    • projects towards temporal cortex,
    • conveys analysis of stimulus features and their configuration to ultimately carry out form disrimination and object identification
  12. Loss of motion perception due to damage to area V5/MT causes?
  13. Prosopagnosia?
    Loss of face recognition due to damage to the (right) Fusiform Face Area (FFA)
  14. Damage to the temporal cortex generally results in poor object recognition - called?
    Visual agnosia
  15. Apperceptive agnosia?
    Unable to perceive full shape of objects despite intact low level processing.
  16. Associative agnosia?
    Ability to perceive shape but unable to recognize it.
  17. Define the concept: Extrastriate visual area?
    The extrastriate cortex is the region of the occipital cortex located next to the primary visual cortex, which is also named striate cortex because of its striped appearance. The extrastriate cortex encompasses multiple functional areas, including V3, V4, V5/MT.
  18. Define the concept: Body-schema?
    The brain representation of the body.
  19. Define the concept: Attentional Blink?
    Failure to detect a second target when it is presented within a sequence of visual stimuli in rapid succession and when it occurs 200-500 ms after the first target.
  20. Define the concept: Change Blindness?
    Failure to notice changes (even large ones) in the visual field (in an object or scene) over a period of time.
  21. Define the concept: Inattentional blindness?
    Failure to notice a salient object or a visible feature that is within one's direct perceptual field because one is attending to something else.
  22. Define the concept: Selective attention?
    Cognitive brain mechanism that enables one to process relevant inputs while ignoring irrelevant or distracting.
  23. Define the concept: Overt attention?
    The act of directing visual attention to locations or objects in the world by moving the eyes.
  24. Define the concept: covert attention?
    The act of directing visual attention to locations or objects in the world without moving the eyes.
  25. Define the concept: Exogenous (automatic, reflexive, bottom-up) attention?
    Attention is automatically captured by the properties of a stimuli.
  26. Define the concept: Endogenous (voluntary, top-down) attention?
    Our ability to intentionally attend to a stimuli.
  27. Define the concept: Alerting? (aka; sustained attention, vigilance and alertness)
    The process involved in becoming and staying attentive toward the surroundings. It appears to exist in the frontal and parietal lobes of the right hemisphere, and is modulated by norepinephrine.
  28. Define the concept: Orienting? (aka; selective attention, scanning)
    The process of selecting specific information from among multiple sensory stimuli.
  29. Define the concept: Executive? (aka; supervisory, conflict resolution, focused attention)
    Attention is used when there is a conflict between multiple attention cues. The mechanism for monitoring and resolving conflict among thoughts, feelings, and responses.
  30. Functional activation of attentional networks when subjects are performing the attention network test, alerting, orienting and executive attentional networks? Where is the activation for each network?
    • The alerting network - thalamic activation. (norepinephrine, NE)
    • The orienting network - parietal activation. (acetyclcholine, ACh)
    • The executive network - anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation. (dopamine, DA)
  31. Define the concept: Somatosensory system?
    A sensory system conveying information that the brain uses to construct percepts that we experience as pain, temperature, touch and proprioception.
  32. Define the concept: Proprioception?
    An awareness of where our limbs are when they are at rest (static) or moving (dynamic).
  33. What is sensory memory?
    • The shortest-term element of memory. It is the ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimuli have ended.
    • From milliseconds to seconds.
    • Not directly accessible for conscious awareness.
    • Relatively large capacity.
  34. What is short-term/working memory?
    • Storage that lasts for a few seconds and then either move on to long-term memory or disappear, so-called short-term memory, also called working memory.
    • Readily available for conscious awareness. 
    • Limited capacity (7+/- 2).
  35. What is long-term memory?
    • Storage for long durations, so-called long-term memory, long-term store, secondary memory, permanent memory, wherein there is a processing and restructuring scrambling initial impressions and giving rise to imaginative ideas, dreams, artistic creation, etc.,
    • From days do decades.
    • Availability for conscious awareness dependes on the content.
    • Unlimited capacity.
  36. The two main types of long-term memory and their function?
    1. Declarative memory (aka; explicit memory) - Events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory)

    2. Nondeclarative memory (aka; implicit memory) - Skills and habits, priming, classical conditioning and nonassociative learning.
  37. Define the concept: Orbitofrontal cortex?
    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitiveprocessing of decision-making.
  38. Damage to prefrontal cortex (PFC) leads to?
    Loss of memory as to when and where an event occurred?
  39. What is an emotion?
    Relatively brief, though intense, affective reaction potentially important events or changes in the internal or external environment. Emotions focuses on specific objects and lasts from minutes to a few hours.
  40. What is mood?
    Affective state with a lower felt intensity than emotions, that do not have a clear object and that last longer then emotions, several hours to days.
  41. What is affect?
    An umbrella term that covers all valanced (positive/negative) states, such as emotion and mood.
  42. Location of activation in response to fear?
  43. Experiencing, observing and imagining disgust all activate what part of the brain?
    Right anterior insula.
  44. What is frontal lobe syndrome?
    • Indecisiveness
    • Failure in prospective memory
    • Being content to abandon a task even tough incomplete
    • Inability to organize or plan a behaviour over longer periods of time
    • Inability to be able to set priorities
  45. The functions of the lateral prefrontal cortex? (Executive function)
    • Goal oriented behaviour.
    • Planning and selection of an action: decide on goals and sub-goals
    • Working memory: selection and retrieval of task-relevant information
    • Set-shift: ability to display flexibility in the face of changing circumstances
    • Set-shift: ability to display flexibility in the face of changing circumstances
    • Problem solving
  46. Function of anterior singulte cortex? (Executive function)
    • Evaluating response conflict (detecting errors)
    • Coordinating activity across attentional systems
  47. Function of ventromedial prefrontal cortex?
    • Reward-processing
    • Decision-making: representing the value of choices
  48. Damage to orbitofrontal cortex produces?
    Acquired sociopathy.
  49. Understanding actions and intentions give activation in what region? (emotinal contagion?)
    • IFG - inferior frontal gyrus
    • IPL - inferior parietal loube
    • STS - superior temporal sulcus
  50. Understanding emotions (empathy) give activation in what brain region?
    • Limbic areas especially; 
    • AI - anterior insula 
    • ACC  - anterior cingulate cortex
  51. Understanding thougths (theory of mind) gives activation in what brain region?
    • mPFC - medial prefrontal cortex
    • temporal poles;
    • STS - superior temporal sulcus.