Psychology: Chapter 12 (part 1)

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  1. just world hypothesis
    victims must have done something to deserve what happened to them
  2. external attributions
    Cause of behavior is situational like luck, accidents, or actions of others
  3. internal attributions
    personal, refer to abilities, moods or efforts
  4. social cognition
    the process through which we notice, interpret, remember and use information to make judgments about the world
  5. Ambady/Rosenthal study
    • a "thin slices" study
    • like primacy effect
    • Students' ratings of professors after watching 30 seconds of professor teaching silently have a .76 correlation rate with students' ratings at the end of the semester
  6. primacy effect
    things that we see first have a stronger weight, so first impressions do matter

    i.e. "thin slices study": Ambady/Rosenthal study
  7. confirmation bias
    • its very hard to unlearn impressions
    • once we make judgments, we try to validate them
  8. The self-fulfilling prophecy (behavioral confirmation biases)
    • people tend to behave in ways that confirm their own/other's expectations
    • i.e. Rosenthal & Jacobson experiment
  9. Rosenthal & Jacobson experiement
    • Confirmed the self-fulfilling prophecy & pygmalion effect
    • Teachers were told certain students were "bloomers" and would see a dramatic IQ increase in their IQ by the end of the year. These students were randomly selected, but the teachers' treatment of them lead to a higher increase in IQ
  10. Pygmalion effect
    The greater expectation placed on a person, the better they perform

    Like self-fulfilling prophecy

    Proved in the Rosenthal & Jacobson experiment

    When employers interview minority applicants, their behavior can cause minorities to perform more poorly
  11. Fundamental Attribution Error (Ross)
    tendency to underestimate influence of situational factors and overestimate dispositional factors

    i.e. on gameshows, observers view the questioners as more knowledgable than the contestants
  12. actor/observer difference
    tendency to see other people's behavior as dispositionally caused while we see our own as a result of situational factors
  13. self serving bias
    people take credit for success and deny responsibility for failures
  14. How does culture affect attribution?
    • easterners are more likely to take situational factors into account when considering others' behavior
    • (eastern group mentality)
  15. the attribution theory
    a description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and others' behavior
  16. When are attributions made? (3)
    • When something unexpected happens
    • When events are bad, painful or unpleasant
    • When we are uncertain about something important to us
  17. the two step process of attribution
    behavior-> fundamental attribution error -> adjustment
  18. heuristic
    rule of thumb which allows one to make quick judgments which are often erroneous
  19. framing effects
    Decisions are  influenced by the background and the way the information is presented

    i.e. approval ratings were different for "Hilary Clinton" & "Hilary Rodham Clinton"
  20. anchoring and adjustment heuristic
    mental shortcut where people use a number or value as a starting point and then adjust their answer from that initial number insufficiently

    • i.e. "Is the Mississippi R longer or shorter than 500 miles?"
    • or 
    • Haggling strategy
  21. availability heuristic
    judgment based on information readily available in memory

    i.e. we overestimate the causes of death we hear the most about
  22. representativeness heuristic
    tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event in terms of how typical it seems 

    ignores base rate information
  23. Sherif study (1936)
    Subjects in a dark room were shown a light and while alone estimated the distances the light moved
  24. Obedience
    • the most direct form of pressure
    • orders, commands
    • ex. Milgram Obedience Experiment
  25. Compliance
    • in between most & least pressure
    • request, appeal
    • ex. Milgram, Zimbardo Prison Experiment
  26. Conformity
    • most indirect pressure
    • expectations
    • ex. Asch line experiment
  27. private conformity
    the change of beliefs that occurs when a person privately accepts the position taken by others
  28. public conformity
    a superficial change in behavior, without a corresponding change of opinion, produced by real or imagined group pressure
  29. informational influence
    the desire to be right
  30. normative influence
    the desire to be liked
  31. What 6 factors cause people to conform?
    • unanimity
    • group size
    • group cohesion
    • salient norms
    • public commitment
    • culture influence
  32. What 6 factors influence compliance?
    • liking 
    • commitment
    • scarcity
    • reciprocity
    • modeling
    • authority
  33. self perception theory
    people observe themselves to figure out the reasons they act the way they do
  34. attitude accesibility
    ease or difficulty a person has retrieving an attitude from memory
  35. explicit vs implicit attitudes
    • explicit: conscious attitudes
    • implicit: unconscious attitudes (i.e. advertisements)
  36. cognitive dissonance theory
    a contradiction between an attitude & a behavior or 2 attitudes causes anxiety & tension
  37. postdecisional dissonance
    • "justifying difficult decisions"
    • When a person has positive attitudes about many options but must only pick one
    • The person focuses on the positive aspects of the chosen option and the negative options of those not chosen
    • Example of Cognitive Dissonance Theory
  38. insufficient justification
    When participants don't have an adequate reason for enjoying something, they have to create one

    • ex. Festinger & Carlsmith
    • Those who were paid more to lie about how enjoyable they found the boring task, rated the task as less enjoyable than those who were paid more.

    Example of cognitive dissonance
  39. Justifying Effort
    After people put themselves through discomfort to join a group they feel as if it is more important 

    Aronson & Mills study: women who were made to feel uncomfortable to be able to watch a video found the video more interesting

    ex. hazing to join fraternities, cults etc.

    Example of Cognitive Dissonance Theory
  40. Social facilitation
    the presence of others enhances our performance

    ex. bicyclists pedal faster when together
  41. Social loafing
    people work less hard when in a group
  42. Risky-shift effect (Stoner)
    Groups make riskier decisions than individuals
  43. Foot-in-the-Door Technique
    Person begins with a very small request, secures agreement and then makes a separate larger request
  44. Door in the Face Effect
    People are more likely to agree to a smaller request after refusing a large one.

    ex. haggling
  45. What are four ways that behavior can determine attitudes?
    • Role playing
    • Saying becomes believing
    • The Foot in the Door technique
    • Justification of cruel actions
  46. How does role playing influence attitudes?
    In the Zimbardo prison study, prisoners & guards internalized their role to such an extent that they believed the attitudes associated with their actions.
  47. How does "saying becomes believing" determine attitudes?
    Patty Hearst was kept in a kidnappers' closet for three months and adopted her kidnappers' beliefs just from hearing them

    Stolkholm syndrome
  48. Asch Experiment
    • Measured conformity
    • Showed participants three lines and asked the groups to identify which was the longest. 
    • 75% of individuals conformed to the group's incorrect answer at least once
  49. Milgram Experiment
    • Measured obedience & compliance
    • Participants were instructed to "shock" a patient who answered a question incorrectly
    • 2/3 went all the way to the highest voltage (!)
  50. Zimbardo
    • Stanford Prison Experiment
    • Compliance
    • many prisoners developed extreme stress but no one quit the experiment
  51. What are three self-persuasion processes explained by Cognitive Dissonance Theory?
    • 1. Insufficient justification
    • 2. Justifying effort
    • 3. Justifying difficult decisions
Card Set
Psychology: Chapter 12 (part 1)
psych ch 12
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