Chemistry_A_Level[1].txt

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Chemistry_A_Level[1].txt
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    • author "me"
    • tags "Chemistry A Level A1 AS OCR GCE"
    • description "cards"
    • fileName "Chemistry A Level"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Define: organic chemistry
    • The study of carbon compounds
  1. Carbon atoms form ______ ________ bonds to eachother
    strong covalent
  2. Name three different structural chains of carbon
    Straight chain, branched chain and cyclic
  3. What is catenation?
    Catenation is the ability to form bonds between atoms of the same element
  4. Why can carbon form a vast number of carbon compounds?
    Because of the strength of the carbon-carbon bond
  5. What is molecular formula?
    The exact number of atoms in a compound
  6. What is empirical formula?
    The smallest ratio of elements in a compound
  7. What is structural formula?
    The minimal detail using convential groups, for an unambiguous structure
  8. What is displayed formula?
    Shows both the relative placing of atoms and the number of bonds between them
  9. What is skeletal formula?
    Used to show a simplified organic formula by removing hydrogen from alkyl chains
  10. What is general formula?
    Represents any member of a homologous series
  11. What is homologous series?
    A series of compounds of similar structure in which each member differs from the next by a common repeating unit
  12. What are members of a Homologous series called?
    Homologues
  13. Properties of a homologous series: general formula?
    Shared between all homologues
  14. Properties of a homologous series: functional group?
    Shared between all homolgues
  15. Properties of a homologous series: chemical properties?
    All homolgues share similar chemical properties
  16. Properties of a homologous series: physical properties as molar mass increases?
    Gradual change in physical properties
  17. What is a functional group?
    A group of atoms that govern the properties of a compound
  18. Number of carbon atoms in main carbon chain, prefix: meth-
    1
  19. Number of carbon atoms in main carbon chain, prefix: eth-
    2
  20. Number of carbon atoms in main carbon chain, prefix: prop-
    3
  21. Number of carbon atoms in main carbon chain, prefix: but-
    4
  22. Number of carbon atoms in main carbon chain, prefix: pent-
    5
  23. Number of carbon atoms in main carbon chain, prefix: hex-
    6
  24. Number of carbon atoms in main carbon chain, prefix: hept-
    7
  25. Number of carbon atoms in main carbon chain, prefix: oct-
    8
  26. Number of carbon atoms in main carbon chain, prefix: dec-
    10
  27. Number of carbon atoms in main carbon chain, prefix: dodec-
    12
  28. Number of carbon atoms in main carbon chain, prefix: eicos-
    20
  29. Which homologous series does this suffix belong to: -ane?
    Alkane
  30. Which homologous series does this suffix belong to: -ene
    Alkene
  31. Which homologous series does this suffix belong to: -ol
    Alcohol
  32. Which homologous series does this suffix belong to: -oic
    Carboxylic acid
  33. Which homologous series does this suffix belong to: -al
    Aldehyde
  34. Which homologous series does this suffix belong to: -one
    Kentone
  35. What is the general formula of alkanes?
    CnH2n+2
  36. What is the general formula of Alkenes?
    CnH2n
  37. What is the general formula of Alkyenes?
    CnH2n-2
  38. What is the general formula of Haloalkanes?
    CnH2n-1X
  39. What is the general formula of Alcohols?
    CnH2n+2O
  40. What is the general formula of Aldehydes?
    CnH2nO
  41. What is the general formula of Ketones?
    CnH2nO
  42. What is the general formula of Carboxylic Acids?
    CnH2nO2
  43. Define isomerism
    When compounds have the same molecular formula but a different structural formula
  44. What is chain isomerism? (Include trends in chemical properties, physical properties and boiling points)
    • Compounds that have:
    • - different arrangements of the carbon skeleton
    • - Similar chemical properties
    • - Slightly different physical properties
    • - A lower boiling point due to more branching
  45. What is positional isomerism? (Include trends in chemical properties and physical properties)
    • Compounds that have:
    • -The same carbon skeleton
    • -The same functional group but in a different position
    • -Similar chemical properties
    • -Slightly different physical properties
  46. What is functional isomerism? (Include trends in the chemical properties and physical properties)
    • Compounds that have:
    • - The same molecular formula
    • - A different functional group
    • - Different chemical properties
    • - Different physical properties
  47. What is a hazard?
    The hazard presented by a substance is its potential to do harm
  48. What is a risk?
    A risk is the chance that a particular hazard will cause harm
  49. State six ways of reducing risk
    • 1) working on a smaller scale
    • 2) taking specific precautions
    • 3) changing the technique used
    • 4) careful use of safety measures
    • 5) changing the conditions under which a reaction takes place
    • 6) using a different method with less hazardous substances
  50. What is a risk assessment?
    A way to identify the risks of using hazardous substances and reduce them as far as possible
  51. What does saturated mean?
    Compounds that consist of carbon-carbon single bonds only (no double or triple bonds present)
  52. What does unsaturated mean?
    Compounds that consist of atleast one carbon-carbon double/triple bond
  53. What is a hydrocarbon?
    A compound made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only
  54. Why are alkanes insoluble in water?
    Because alkanes are covalent substances and water is an ionic solvent
  55. What is the difference in boiling points with straight chain isomers and branched isomers?
    Why?
    Straight chain isomers have higher boiling points than branched isomers because they have stronger intermolecular forces and therfore more energy is needed to break them
  56. Reactions of alkanes: combustion
    Is the flame clean or sooty?
    What does the flame indicate about the ratio of C:H?
    • The flame is clean
    • This indicates there's a small C:H ratio
  57. What is the general word reaction for the combustion of a hydrocarbon in a ventilated space?
    Hydrocarbon + oxygen > carbon dioxide + water
  58. How do you test for carbon dioxide?
    Bubble the carbon dioxide through lime water and the lime water should turn from colourless to cloudy
  59. How do you test for water?
    • 1) Place pink cobalt chloride paper in water and it should turn blue
    • OR
    • 2) Add anydrous CuSO4 (white) to the water and it should turn blue to form hydrated CuSO4
  60. What is the general word equation for the combustion of a hydrocarbon in oxygen deficiency?
    Hydrocarbon + oxygen > carbon monoxide + water
  61. What type of reaction is combustion?
    Exothermic
  62. How do you work out the amount of energy released/taken in, in a reaction when given the reaction?
    • 1) Draw the displayed formulas of all compounds in reaction
    • 2) Count the amount of each bond is present on either side of the reaction
    • 3) Take the left side of the reaction away from the right side
    • (Positive energy means an endothermic reaction and negative energy means an exothermic reaction)
  63. What is reforming?
    The breaking up of straight chain molecules and reforming them into new isomers with branched chains using a platinum catalyst at 450°C and 40atm
  64. What is cracking and what are the two types of cracking?
    • Cracking is the breaking down of larger hydrocarbons into smaller useful ones
    • Two types of cracking are thermal cracking, 2000°C is required, and catalytic cracking which requires a Zeolite catalyst and 450°C temperatures
  65. What is meant by the term "knocking"?
    If the explosion in a car engine occurs too early, the pistons are jarred and makes knocking noises
  66. What is octane rating?
    An octane rating is used to indicate the proportion of branched-to-straight-chain molecules
  67. How is octane rating measured?
    The octane rating of 2, 2, 4-trimethylpentane is set at 100 whilst that of a straight chain heptane is set at 0. A fuel can be tested by comparing it with these in a test engine. The ratio of heptane : 2, 2, 4-trimethylpentane is varied in the comparator mixture until it has the same ignition properties as the sample of fuel being used. The % of the 2, 2, 4-trimethylpentane in the mixture is then taken as the octane rating of the fuel
  68. State two methods of preventing knocking
    • 1) Add lead (Pb(C2H5)4) to retard its ignition
    • 2) catalytic reforming
  69. What is an atom?
    An atom is the smallest, electrically neutral, particle of an element that can take part in a chemical change
  70. What is a molecule?
    A molecule is the smallest, electrically neutral, particle of a an element or compound that can exist on its own
  71. What is an ion?
    An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, which carries an electrical charge
  72. What charge do metals in group 1 have?
    +1
  73. What charges do metals in group 2 have?
    +2
  74. What charges do metals in group 3 have?
    +3
  75. What charges do ions in group 7 have?
    -1
  76. What charges do ions in group 6 have?
    -2
  77. What charges do ions in group 5 have?
    -3
  78. What is the charge and chemical formula of hydroxide?
    OH-
  79. What is the charge and chemical formula of nitrate?
    NO3-
  80. What is the charge and chemical formula of carbonate?
    CO3-2
  81. What is the charge and chemical formula of sulfate?
    SO4-2
  82. What is the charge and chemical formula of ammonium?
    NH4+
  83. How many bonds can carbon form?
    4
  84. How many bonds can nitrogen form?
    3
  85. How many bonds can phosphorus form?
    3 or 5
  86. How many bonds can oxygen and sulfur form?
    2
  87. How many bonds can halogens form?
    1

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