Skin

Card Set Information

Author:
PNP9
ID:
249407
Filename:
Skin
Updated:
2013-11-27 18:32:07
Tags:
skin
Folders:
Dermatology
Description:
layers, function
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  1. Layers of the skin?
    • epidermis
    • dermis
    • subcutaneous
  2. Epidermis is made of?
    • Keranocytes
    • Melanocytes
    • Langherhans
  3. What are keranotinocytes?
    • Majority of the cells of the epidermis
    • Provides barries to skin
  4. What are melanocytes?
    • at basal layer ( bottom line of the epideris layer)
    • make pigment melanin that get transferred to the keratinocytes in the basal cell layer
  5. Melanoma?
    • malignancy of melanocytes
    • suggests central cyanosis
    • arises in non-sun exposed areas
    • ass. w/ intermittent and intense sun exposure
    • blistering sunburns in childhood

    • RF
    • - family hx of melanoma
    • - light skin
    • - presence of atypical moles (dysplastic nevi) or > 50 common moles
    • - immunosuppression
  6. What are Langhern's cells?
    • 3rd type of epidermal cells
    • dendritic cells at mid-epidermis
    • bind to antigen entering skin and transport them to lymph nodes
  7. Characteristics of the dermis?
    • thicker than the epidermis
    • Made of fibroblasts and mast cells
    • contains:
    • - blood
    • - lymphatic vessels,
    • - nerves supplying the skin
    • - sweat glands
    • - hair follicles
  8. What are fibroblasts?
    • resp. for synthesis and degradation of connective tissue protein
    • imp in wound healingscaling

    Ex: keloids ( dermal injury)
  9. Mast cells?
    • specialized cells resp for immediate type hypersensitivity reaction in skin
    • Ex: Urticaria, wheals
  10. What is the subcutaneous layer?
    • fat layer that separates dermis from muscles
    • Ex: erythema nodosum ( inflammed nodules on sheen)
  11. What are the characteristics of basal cell carcinoma?
    • ulcerated in the center nodules w/ shiny surfaces 
    • erythematous papules and plaques
    • most common cancer
    • margin well defined
    • painless
    • almost never spreads
  12. What are the characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma?
    • affects outer layer of skin ( keratinocytes)
    • Spreads
    • firmer and redder
    • hard scalling papules, nodules ot plaques that sometimes ulcerate and bleed
  13. Atopic Dermatitis / Exzema
    • Genetic ( astham and rhinitis)
    • Chronic eruption of:
    • - pruritic erythematous, oozing papules and plaques
    • - w/ 2nd lichenification and excoriation

    • Location
    • - Infants : extensor surface, diaper area, head
    • - Adults: flexor surface, upper chest, face, neck
  14. Patient education about skin care to avoid cancer?
    • avoid unecessary sun exposure
    • use sunscreen, at SPF of 15 - water resistent if possible
    • inspect skin frequently
  15. ACS recommendation about skin inspection?
    • self -->monthly
    • q3 years --> clinician exam for people 20 - 39 yo
    • q1yr --> > 40
  16. ABCDEs of melanoma?
    • A - asymetry
    • B - border irregularity
    • C - color ( variation/ change)
    • D - diameter ( larger than 6 cm)
    • E - deviation

    Refer suspicious lesions to dermatologist
  17. Palor due to decreased redness
    • anemia
    • decreased blood flow
    • arterioles insufficiency

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