What is the major feed in the US for dairy and beef cattle, and for horses?
-It is the most economical feed available for
certain feeding programs.
What are the primary incentives to use pasture?
a. Less labor may be required to feed livestock
b. Possibility that pasture is cheaper to produce than other forages
c. Some lands may not be used agriculturally except as pasture
What are the essential qualities of pasture?
a. Made as enduring as possible
b. Growth should start early in the season and continue to produce until late in the fall
c. Plants should form a continuous compact turf- so that it will withstand trampling by the animals
d. Advantageous to have a variety of plants- provides for growth under both moist
and dry soil conditions
What does Stage of Maturity affect?
nutritive composition of pasture.
What does increasing maturity of a pasture result in?
a. Reduced protein content
b. Reduced energy content
c. Increased fiber content
d. Reduced mineral content
e.Reduced carotene content (important because they are precursors to vitamin A)
What affect does soil fertility have on pastures?
Affects nutrient content
A deficiency of _____, ______ or ______ in soil can result in low values in the crop in pastures.
calcium,phosphorus or trace minerals (soil fertility of pastures)
What happens to Nitrogen yield if their is a low soil nitrogen supple in pastures? and if nitrogen is added what happens as a result?
Nitrogen yield suffers greatly from low soil nitrogen supply and additions of nitrogen to the soil can increase crude protein content of the plant.
e.g. low P soil;grass=.10% P (ca not as greatly affected as P)High P soil; grass=.2 to .4% P
What is spread on pasture land to increase fertility by supplying minerals and Nitrogen?
Ca, P, and N
What are some special problems of grazing livestock on pastures?
1. Poisonous plants
3. Chemical Compounds
4. Nitrate poisoning
5. Elemental deficiencies and imbalances
When is it likely that poisonous plants will occur on pastures?
When pastures are in poor condition from overgrazing
What species is bloat a problem for on pastures?
hazard for cattle and sheep grazing pastures high in legumes
What are examples of some of the chemical compounds that are problematic for grazing livestock on pastures?
What affect does tannins have on pastures that grazing livestock feed from?
What's an example of a food with high tannins??
tendency to decrease palatability because of bitter taste
-birds foot trefoil has high tannins, and sainfoin also is high in tannins
What is another name for cyanogenic glycosides?
Prussic acid poisoning
When can cyanogenic glycosides occur in livestock?
In livestock grazing in sorghum following severe drought, early frost or period of heavy trampling
What can contain enough estrogenic compounds at high levels in pastures to cause reproductive problems?
white clover and alfalfa
What can happen if certain alkaloids are ingested by a pregnant animal?
certain compounds can result in a malformed fetus
Where is Coumarin found? and what does it cause?
found in sweet clover leaves
-resulting in a decrease in palatability (dicoumarol affects vitamin K)
*Coumarin -> dicoumarol by
microbial action during spoilage, can prevent blood clotting
What is nitrate poisoning and how does it occur?
What does it cause?
- high accumulation of nitrates in forages
- can occur from nitrate fertilization or drought
- which can cause abortion and even death in livestock
What is the most widely recognized elemental
deficiencies/imbalances problem in cattle?
-hypomagnesemia or “grass tetany” in cattle grazing lush, new-growth forage.
-also possibility of Se deficiencies (low Se soil).
What is Green Chop (Soilage)?
refers to fresh forage that has been cut and chopped in the field and then fed directly to livestock in confinement.
What are advantages of feeding Green Chop (soilage)?
a. Produces maximum yield of nutrients/acre
b. Lower nutrient losses compared with other harvesting procedures
What are the disadvantages of feeding Green Chop (soilage)?
a. Lack of uniform quality from day to day (weather condition)
b. Labor required to harvest and feed daily
What is Hay?
produced by dehydrating green forage to a moisture content of 15% or lower.
What are the steps of Haymaking?
1. Harvest plant
3. Raking of forage crop
When do you harvest the plant to make hay?
Harvest the plant at the optimum stage of maturity that will provide maximal yield of nutrients without damage to the next crop
How do you ensure proper curing of hay?
reduction of moisture content to permit safe storage without spoilage or serious nutrient loss.
When is raking of forage crops for hay done?
before it is completely dry avoids excessive shattering
How is Hay stored? When?
Storing the cured hay is most commonly in the form of bales
- should be carried out as soon as the hay is sufficiently dried
What are the three ways nutrients can be lost during the haymaking process?
Shattering leaves, Heat damage, and fermentation (plant cell respiration)
What does shattering leaves result in when making hay?
can result in loss of protein, carotene, B vitamins, minerals and energy.
How much shattering occurs under ideal conditions for grasses in hay?
How much shattering occurs under ideal conditions of legumes in hay?
How does heat affect (damage) nutrient value of hay?
storing hay with excess moisture (more than 25 to 30%), can cause mold and stimulate bacterial growth and heat production
How does fermentation affect the nutritional value of hay?
converts sugars and starches to carbon dioxide and water (lost) and results in reduction of energy value and destroys carotenes.
How is hay stored?
Cubes, bales, and stacks
How are hay cubes made?
by compressing long or coarsely chopped hay.
Hay Cubes are _____ convenient to feed than other forms of hay.
They are also the most ______ way to feed hay.
As well as they may result in ______ wastage
-More(typically a cube is 1 ¼- 1 ½ inches on each side)
How is long hay packed?
Bales or stacks (round or square bales)
What is silage?
the product of acidic fermentation by bacteria of green forage crops that have been compressed and stored under anaerobic conditions in a container called a silo.
What is the primary reason that farmers produce silage instead of hay?
feeding hay crop as silage requires less labor than would feeding the crop as hay
What is the goal of creating silage?
convert enough carbohydrate into acid during the fermentation process so that the pH prevents growth of spoilage bacteria (if silo is closed makes environment for anaerobic fermentation, anaerobic fermentor)
What processes are involved in getting the hay crop ready to be stored in silos?
Hay must be wilted and chopped
How many phases are there of silage fermentation?
What is the first phase of silage fermentation?
Plant material is put in the silo – oxygen is consumed while CO2 and heat are produced. Temperature of the silage increases (should be at 60-70% moisture when initially put in, or 30-40% DM at initial)
What is the second phase of silage fermentation?
Acetic acid is produced – pH decreases from 6.0 to 4.2
What is the third phase of silage fermentation?
Lactic acid formation begins on the third day-acetic acid formation declines
What is the fourth phase of silage fermentation?
Lactic acid formation continues for about two weeks
-Temperature declines and bacterial action stops as pH decreases to about 4.0.
-silage remains in a fairly stable state providing there is no contact with oxygen.
-The fermentation process lasts about 21 days. (temp during whole process within the silo is 80-100 degrees farenheit)
What are the sources of energy concentrates?
cereal grains, beet and citrus pulp, molasses, animal and vegetable fat, and bakery waste
What are the general nutritive characteristics of energy concentrates?
a. High in energy (TDN or NE)
b. Low in fiber
c. Low in protein (in relation to oil seeds and some mill feeds)
d. Protein quality is variable and generally quite low (corn is about
8-10% CP) (Lysine is first limiting amino acid. And these poor quality proteins
are low in lysine)
e. Mineral level- fair in phosphorus (good compared with forages). Calcium level is low.
What are important energy sources in feed? (energy concentrates)