BDCS_MASONRY

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ARCHTKBG
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249420
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BDCS_MASONRY
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2013-11-30 12:49:16
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ARE Building Design and Construction Systems Masonry notes
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  1. MASONRY
    Individual units cut or molded and joined together with mortar.
  2. Masonry History
    • BRICK
    • Stone age: Stacking of shaped stones
    • 3rd millennium: Egyptians built w/ cut stone blocks (2-4 tons)
    • 7500 BC: First uniform shape sun-dried mud bricks with proportions of 4:2:1 (best for bonding)
    • 4000 BC: Mesopotamia used first fired mud bricks
    • 3rd BC: Romans introduce mobile kilns and the "true arch" which allowed wedge shaped bricks (held by compression) to span large distances
    • 1100-1450 AD: Gothic cathedrals utilize the flying buttress which absorbed excess weight and allowed non-load bearing infill between supports. (Beauvais Cathedral 157ft vaults)
    • Late 18th: Machines (after Industrial Revolution) created uniformity in weight, size, strength and color of bricks.
    • Early 19th: Cavity wall used to resist water penetration with a 2" air space.
    • 1850's: Air holes (weeps) and flashing is used.

    • BRICK BUILDINGS
    • 1870: Henry-Hobbs Richardson (Romanesque in Boston)
    • 1906: Robbie House, Prairie style (FLW)
    • 1908: National Farmers Bank, Minnesota (Louis Sullivan)

    • GLASS BLOCK
    • Early 19th: Glass block invented
    • 1907: Keppler created interlocking solid glass blocks for use as masonry walls within reinforced concrete structures.
    • 1930's: Hollow glass block, Owens Illinois Glass Corporation.

    • GLASS BLOCK BUILDINGS
    • 1931: Maison de Verre, Paris (Chareau / Bijvoet)
    • 1939: Glass tower (108 ft high), Glass Center New York World's Fair

    • CMU
    • 3rd BC: Romans used solid blocks
    • 1900: Palmer creates hollow block machine
    • 1917: Straub lighter weight cinder block
    • 1960's: Louis Kahn asks "What do you want Brick?" and with the response "I like an Arch" the brick arch returns to modern architecture.

    • CMU BUILDINGS
    • 1924: Hollyhock House, LA (FLW)
    • RECENT
    • Brick masonry: designer colors, textures, non-standard sizes
    • Cast stone: colors to match brick
    • Prefabricated Masonry Walls: mortars and adhesives.
    • Concrete Block: drystack system
    • Glass Block: variety of colors, textures and fiber optic illumination
  3. Sustainability of Masonry
    • Earth friendly products
    • Thermal mass provides natural solar heating and cooling
    • Local production reduces shipping
    • Longevity due to durable, weather-resistant character
    • Little product waste on construction site
    • Reuse
    • Production is energy intensive due to firing
    • Air pollution is caused by kilns which run on oil, gas, or coal.
  4. BRICK
    A rectangular masonry unit molded from clays and shales; dried and then fired.
  5. Variation of Brick
    • Physical ingredients
    • Chemical ingredients
    • Temperatures at which fired
  6. Types of Molds
    • Soft Mud: moist clay is pressed into rectangular molds.
    • Stiff Mud: (most common) mixture is forced through a die creating a ribbon and then cut by wires
    • Dry Press: (most accurate) relatively dry mix is pressed into gang mold by plungers under high pressure.
  7. HOLLOW BRICK
    Net cross-sectional area is at least 60% of its gross cross-sectional area
  8. CORED BRICK
    Net cross-sectional area is at least 75% of its gross cross-sectional area
  9. Brick Color
    • Red
    • Buff
  10. Brick Finish - Textures
    • Smooth
    • Struck (water and sand)
    • Scored
    • Wire Cut
    • Combed
    • Roughened
  11. Building Brick
    • (Common Brick)
    • Clay fired (1850 deg F)
    • Red color
    • Various sizes
    • (most widely used)
  12. Brick Specification
    • Use and exposure
    • Appearance factors
  13. Grade SW
    • Severe weathering
    • Used in areas of heavy rain, snow or continual freezing.
    • Building Brick, Face Brick, & Hollow Brick
  14. Grade MW
    • Moderate weathering
    • Used in areas of average rain and moderate freezing.
    • Building Brick, Face Brick & Hollow Brick
  15. Grade NW
    • No weathering
    • Used in areas of minimal rain and no freezing
    • (sheltered or indoor locations)
  16. Face Brick
    • Made from controlled mixtures of clay in high quality units that is exposed to view.
    • Specific sizes, textures and colors.
  17. Grade FBX
    • High degree of mechanical perfection
    • Narrow color range
    • Minimum size variation
  18. Grade FBS
    • Greater size variation
    • Wide color range
  19. Grade FBA
    Non-uniform size, color and texture
  20. Grade HBX
    • High degree of mechanical perfection
    • Narrow color range
    • Minimum size variation
  21. Grade HBS
    • Greater size variation
    • Wide color range
  22. Grade HBA
    Non-uniform size, color and texture
  23. BACKUP BRICK
    Inferior brick used behind face brick.
  24. PAVING BRICK
    Very hard and dense brick used in pavements.
  25. FIRE BRICK
    Brick made with great resistance to high temperatures (fireplace).
  26. SEWER BRICK
    Low-absorption brick for use in sewer and storm drains.
  27. ADOBE BRICK
    • Brick made from a mixture of natural clay and straw; placed in a mold, and dried by the sun.
    • Requires protection from rain and subsurface moisture.
  28. NAIL-ON BRICK
    Flat brick generally used on interiors where solid masonry cannot be structurally supported.
  29. MODULAR BRICK
    • Bricks with exact multiple of 4" dimensions when including the mortar joint.
    • Economy 8: 4x8x4H
    • Economy 12: 4x8x 3 1/2 H
    • Roman: 4x8x1 1/2H
  30. Brick Nomenclature
    • Bed: Top and bottom largest area
    • Cull / End: Short sides
    • Face / Side: Long sides
  31. Cut Bricks
    • Half (Bat): Half the length
    • 3/4: 3/4 the length
    • 1/4 Closer: 1/4 the length
    • King Closer: 45 corner off end / cull
    • Queen Closer: Half the wythe
    • Split (Soap): Half course
  32. Brick Courses
    • Stretcher: Face exposed; long horizontal
    • Soldier: Face exposed; long vertical
    • Header: Cull / end exposed; long horizontal
    • Rowlock: Cull / end exposed; long vertical
    • Shiner: Bed exposed; long horizontal
    • Sailor: Bed exposed; long vertical
  33. Bricklaying
    • Depends on workmanship
    • Laid when temperatures are between 40 - 90 deg. F
    • Wet brick to prevent absorption of water from mortar.
    • Lay in solid mortar bed and fill head joints
  34. Absorption rate for brick
    <0.7 ounces of water per minute
  35. Masonry Joint Thickness
    • 1/4" to 1/2"
    • 3 courses + joints = 8"
  36. CAVITY WALLS
    (2) wythes separated by 2"-3" of air space
  37. REINFORCED BRICK
    (2) wythes separated by 2"-4" space filled with horizontal and vertical reinforcement bars and grouted solid. (Running or Stacked bond)
  38. GROUT
    Portland cement, sand, water, (pea gravel), (lime)
  39. BRICK BONDING
    The pattern in which brick is laid to tie the wythes together in a structural unit.
  40. Running Bond
    • Stretchers are staggered at each course
    • Mesh reinforcement at every 6th course
    • Most common
  41. Stacked Bond
    • Stretchers are aligned at each course
    • Mesh reinforcement at every 6th course
  42. Common Bond
    • Stretchers are staggered at each course
    • Headers at every 6th course
  43. English Bond
    Stretcher and header alternate courses
  44. Flemish Bond
    Stretcher and header alternate within each course
  45. VENEERING
    Exposed masonry that is attached with metal clips, wires or anchors but not structurally bonded to the backing
  46. EFFLORESCENCE
    White, powdery deposit on the surface of masonry caused by soluble salts within the units or mortar.
  47. Efflorescence Prevention
    • Solid and tight mortar joints
    • Capped walls
    • Flashing
    • Adequate weather protection during construction
  48. Expansion Joints
    • Backer rod and sealant
    • Used in buildings >200 ft long
    • Used when there are two or more wings in a building
  49. CMU
    • Concrete Masonry Unit
    • Made from concrete using a stiff mix in a steel mold and cured at an accelerated rate.
  50. CMU Size
    Nominal 8x8x16 with 3/8" mortar joint
  51. CMU Classification (Load Bearing)
    • N (severe exposure)
    • S (requires protection from weather)
  52. STRUCTURAL CLAY TILE
    • Hollow, burned-clay masonry units with parallel cells.
    • Back-up Tile
    • Facing Tile
  53. Side-Construction Tile
    Horizontal cells
  54. End-Construction Tile
    Vertical cells
  55. ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA
    Clay tile used for decorative designs available in various colors, textures, and shapes
  56. CERAMIC VENEER
    Terra cotta tile available in large face dimensions, thin sections, and variety of finishes
  57. GYPSUM BLOCK
    • Solid or cored units manufactured from gypsum plaster.
    • 2-6" thick panels of 12x30
  58. Gypsum Block Use
    • Non-load bearing interior partitions
    • Lightweight fireproofing protection
    • (2" = 4:" of CMU)
    • Cannot be used in areas of continuous dampness
  59. GLASS BLOCK
    • Solid or hollow units of glass used to control light transmission, glare or solar heat.
    • 4" module thickness
    • Non-load bearing
    • Stacked bond
    • Control joints are critical
    • Resilient expansion joint material needed
  60. STONE
    Small or quarried pieces of rock.
  61. Igneous Rock
    Granite
  62. Sedimentary Rock
    • Limestone
    • Sandstone
    • Bluestone
    • Brownstone
  63. Metamorphic Rock
    • Marble
    • Soapstone
    • Slate
  64. Rough Stone
    (Fieldstone): natural stone used decoratively
  65. Rubble Stone
    Irregular stone with one good face for ashlar veneers, copings, sills, curbs, etc.
  66. Dimension Stone
    Cut stone used for surface veneers, toilet partitions, flooring, stair treads, etc.
  67. Flagstone
    Thin slabs used for paving, treads, countertops, etc.
  68. Monumental Stone
    Used for sculpture, monuments, gravestones, etc.
  69. Crushed Stone
    Used as aggregate and granular fill
  70. Stone Dust
    Used as filler in asphalt flooring, shingles, paints, etc.
  71. Stone Factors
    • Strength
    • Porosity
    • Absorption
    • Permeability
  72. Stone Finishes
    • Rough: Quarry face, split face, sawed
    • Smooth: Rubbed, honed, polished
  73. Stone Masonry Classification
    • Rubble Masonry: stone left in natural rough state
    • Ashlar Masonry: stone is shaped into blocks
    • Coursed: continuous horizontal joints
    • Uncoursed (random): uneven joints
  74. BOND STONE
    A stone with its longest dimension perpendicular to the wall face to tie the wall into it's backing.
  75. Stone Masonry Securing
    • Mortar
    • Mechanically anchored (veneer) (clips, straps, wires)
  76. MORTAR
    composed of varying quantities of Portland cement, sand, lime and water, it bonds masonry units together with each other or supporting members and prevents moisture penetration.
  77. Portland Cement-Lime Mortar
    Used when high strength and low permeability are required.
  78. Mortar Types
    • Load Bearing: Type M or S
    • Weather Exposure: Type M or S
    • Less compressive strength: Type N or O
  79. Mortar Joints
    • Weathered: 45 @ bottom
    • Round Rod: concave
    • Flush: even with face
    • V-shaped: concave 'V'
    • Beaded: convex
    • Troweled: 45 @ top (allow water to college on bottom edge)
    • Raked: concave square
    • Stripped: deep concave rectilinear
    • Squeezed / Extruded: allow grout to squeeze out in natural way
  80. Masonry Accessories
    • Strap Anchors
    • Dovetail Anchors
    • Cramp Anchors
    • Pin
    • Threaded Dowel
    • Hangers
    • Expansion Joint
    • Water Stops

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