Science vocab chapter 5

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Science vocab chapter 5
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2013-11-27 21:03:45
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Science vocab chapter 5
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  1. Electron
    A negatively charged particle within the atom

    • E.g. in an atom they circulate
    • the atom
  2. Subatomic particle
    A particle that is smaller than the atom

    E.g. electrons, neutrons, protons
  3. Nucleus
    In chemistry, the positively charged centre of an atom

    E.g. contains protons & neutrons
  4. Proton
    A positively charged particle that is in every atomic nucleus

    E.g. make up part of nucleus
  5. Neutron
    An uncharged particle that is in almost every atomic nucleus

    E.g. make up part of nucleus
  6. Energy levels
    A possible of energy an electron can have in an atom

    E.g. hydrogen has 1
  7. Atomic number
    The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom 


    E.g. hydrogen’s is 1
  8. Mass number
    The sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

    E.g. in hydrogen it’s 1
  9. Isotope
    • One of two or more forms of an element that have the same number of protons but
    • different number of neutrons

    E.g. potassium 40 is an isotope
  10. Bohr-Rutherford diagram
    • A model of the atom in which a central positive nucleus is surrounded by electrons in
    • energy levels

    E.g. picture on pg. 184
  11. Atomic mass
    The average mass of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element

    E.g. hydrogen’s is 1+
  12. Periodic table
    • A system for organizing elements into columns and rows, so that elements with similar
    • properties are in the same column

    • E.g. hydrogen, helium, lithium,
    • beryllium, aluminum etc.
  13. Metal
    Typically an element that is hard, shiny, malleable, and ductile, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity

    E.g. iron, gold, silver
  14. Non-metal
    Typically an element that is not shiny, malleable, and ductile, and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity

    E.g. oxygen, sulfur, iodine
  15. Metalloid
    An element that shares some properties with metals and some properties with non-metals

    E.g. boron, silicon, arsenic
  16. Period
    A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table

    E.g. 1 contains hydrogen and helium
  17. Group
    A vertical column of elements in the periodic table

    E.g. 18 is the noble gasses
  18. Alkali metal
    All shiny soft and highly reactive metals (group 1)

    E.g. sodium, lithium, potassium
  19. Alkaline earth metal
    All shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals (group 2)

    E.g. beryllium, magnesium, calcium
  20. Halogens
    All are toxic and form acids when bonded to hydrogen (group 17)

    E.g. chlorine, bromine, iodine
  21. Noble gases
    Gases that are highly unreactive (group 18)

    E.g. neon, xenon, krypton
  22. Valence electron
    An electron in the outermost occupied energy level of an atom

    E.g. potassium has 1

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