Chapter 2 Vocabulary

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Blue_star18
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249465
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Chapter 2 Vocabulary
Updated:
2013-12-01 18:51:32
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Medical Terms
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This is to help with the book The Language of Medicine.
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  1. What is Anabolism?
    • Anabolism is process of building up large proteins from small proteins pieces called amino acids.
    • Ana- means up, bol means to cast, -ism is a process
  2. What is Catabolism?
    • Catabolism is process whereby complex nutrients are broken down to simpler substances and energy released.
    • Cata- means down, bol means to cast, and -ism is a process
  3. What is Cell Membrane?
    Cell Membrane is a structure surrounding and protecting the cell. it determines what enters and leaves the cell.
  4. What is Chromosomes?
    Chromosomes is a rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contains regions of DNA called genes. There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell except the egg and sperm cells, which contain only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes.
  5. What is Cytoplasm?
    Cytoplasm is an all material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane.
  6. What is DNA?
    DNA is a chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell.
  7. What is Endoplasmic Reticulum?
    Endoplasm Reticulum is a network of canals within the cytoplasm of the cell. Here, large proteins are made from small protein pieces.
  8. What is Genes?
    Genes are a regions of DNA within each chromosome.
  9. What is Karyotype?
    Karyotype is a picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure.
  10. What is Metabolism?
    • Metabolism is a total of the chemical process in a cell. It includes catabolism and anabolism.
    • meta- means change, bol means to cast, and -ism means a process.
  11. What is Mitochondria?
    • Mitochondria is a structures in the cytoplasm that provide the principal source of energy (miniature "power plants") for the cell. Catabolism is the process that occurs in mitochondria.
    • (from the Greek mitos meaning thread, and chondrion meaning granule.)
  12. What is Nucleus?
    Nucleus are the control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell.
  13. What is a Cell?
    Cell is the fundamental unit of all living things (animal or plant).
  14. Adipose tissue
    collection of fat cells
  15. Cartilage
    flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints. for example, it surrounds the trachea and forms past of external ear and nose
  16. Epithelial cells
    skin cells that cover the outside of the body and line the internal surfaces of organs.
  17. Histologist
    specialist in the study of tissues
  18. Larynx
    "voice box", located at the upper part of the trachea
  19. Pharynx
    throat. the pharynx serves as the common passageway for food (from the mouth going to the esophagus) and air (from the nose to the trachea).
  20. Pituitary gland
    endocrine gland at the base of the brain.
  21. Thyroid gland
    endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck.
  22. Trachea
    "windpipe" (tube leading from the throat to the bronchial tube).
  23. Ureter
    one of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder. (Spelling clue: ureter has two e's, and there are two ureters.)
  24. Urethra
    tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. (urethra has one e, and there is only one urethra).
  25. Uterus
    the womb. the organ that holds the embryo/fetus as it develops
  26. Viscera
    internal organs
  27. Vertebra
    single backbone
  28. Vertebrae
    backbones
  29. Spinal Column
    bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity.
  30. Spinal Cord
    Nervous tissue within the spinal cavity.
  31. Disk (disc)
    pad of cartilage between vertebrae.

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