EVST 101 Final

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EVST 101 Final
2009-12-08 11:33:28

Final for EVST
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  1. A loam soil is a mixture of
    40 percent sand 40 percent silt and 20 percent clay
  2. Nitrogen and phosphorous stimulate -------- in plants
    increased growth
  3. As a synthetic chemicla pesticide is repeatedly used in t he control of an insect, it gradually loses its effectiveness. This
    occurs because insects become resistant due to survival of the fittest
  4. DDT when used in the US, was most negatively harmful
    to birds as it caused them to lay eggs with very thin shells
  5. Topsoil is found in which soil horizon
    A horizon
  6. A soil that allow very little leaching has good
    nutrient-holding capacity
  7. Most plants require substantial quantities of water to replace water lost through
  8. Bioaccumulation is
    the buildup of a toxin in an organism
  9. Which soil particle is the smallest
  10. Infiltration (or percolation) means
    the movement of water down through the layers of the soil
  11. In the course of using synthetic chemical pesticides, such as DDT, it was observed that certain species of insects, which had not previously caused significant harm, became serious pests, This phenomenon is know as
    a secondary pest outbreak
  12. Which is NOT a characteristic of subsistence farming
    dependable cash income
  13. Most plants live best in a soil pH range of
  14. In Virginia, which state agency assists farmers with funding for erosion control and soil conservation measures
    DEpartment of Conservation & Recreation
  15. Shelter belts are used in agriculture to
    block wind movement to decrease erosion
  16. The spongy, dark brown or black material that remains from a rotting dead log is called
  17. The kind of erosion caused by rainfall runoff is called
    sheet erosion
  18. The main cause of dryland soil erosion is
    overgrazing overcultivation deforestation
  19. What federal law provided farmers with funds that reduced soil loss
    the Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act
  20. What pesticide incident occurred in Virginia in the 1970's that seriously affected workers' health and fishing in the James River
  21. Soil texture is a measurement of the
    proportion of sand, silt, and clay sized particles
  22. The-------- indicates that lack of scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for failing to take measures to prevent potential damage
    precautionary principle
  23. First generation pesticides refer to
    inorganic chemicals
  24. When farmers irrigate their croplands, minerals from the water remain on the soil after evaporation, resulting in
  25. Clay holds lots of water because
    the particles are so fine and close together
  26. Referring to a pesticide as broad spectrum means that
    it is effective against a wide variety of pests
  27. Which agricultural method is best to aviod soil disturbance and soil loss
    no till farming
  28. What disease does DDT help to control
  29. Sustainable agricultural systems
    must be patterned after natural ecosystems
  30. A herbicide would work best to kill
  31. World food prodution may be sustainably increased from current levels by
    shifting from cash crops and animal feed to food crops
  32. Which of the following is NOT a major source of soil erosion
    forested areas
  33. The gradual breakdown of rock into soil particles by physical and chemical processes is called
  34. The federal agency responsible for setting allowable tolerances for pesticide residues is the
    Environmental Protection Agency
  35. Which of the following is FALSE
    From the outset, ecologists recognized the environmental problems that DDT would cause
  36. Which soil class is best for agricultural soils
  37. The GReen Revolution in the 1950-60's helped world hunger by
    the development of plants that produced more grain and were stronger
  38. A farmer sprays his crop with a synthetic chemical pesticide to control an insect infestation. the infestaton subsides, then a few weeks later, it actually becomes worse This phenomenon is known as
  39. A pesticide similar to DDT was sprayed on a lake to control mosquitoes.
    After a period of a few months, the highest concentration of this
    pesticide was found in the
    osprey and hawks that ate the fish
  40. Produce that is grown without the aid of pesticides and other synthetic chemicals is
    organically grown
  41. ----------- is the supplying of water to croplands by artificial means
  42. The process of soil being washed or blown away is called
  43. What federal agency monitors farming and soil loss issues
    US Agriculture
  44. What is one of the concerns about genetically engineered foods
    if have a side effect when eaten
  45. Whivh federal program reimburses farmers for retiring erosion prone land and planting it with trees or greasses
    Fair ACt Conseration Reservve Act
  46. Assured access for every person to enough nutritious food to sustain an active and healthy life is
    Food Security
  47. As a pesticide accumulates in the food chain, this is called
  48. Wjat practice compines chemical and ecological pest control methods
  49. Who wrote the book Silent Spring
    Rachel Carson
  50. the federal law that controls pesticide use is called
  51. Name one of the eight millennium development goals for 2015
    to reduce proverty in developing countries
  52. Name one of the factors that contribute to the Human Poverty Index
    Study of living number of people less than certain income
  53. A plan developed by a county government to determine over the long term what development will be locaded is called a
  54. By the yeaer 2200 the World population is expected to be
    10 billion
  55. A new source of income and economic development in developing countries involving recreational activities and wild species observation in unique ecological sites
  56. Biota and the ecosystems they form collectively have value known as
    Biological well
  57. Name of the two factors other than poverty that interact in the poverty cycle
    high families thin out money for families
  58. Controlling the rate and pattern of development to achieve quality of life and sustainability is known as
    Smart Growth
  59. The Act providing funding for enhanced transpotation projects and other modes of transportation than highways is
  60. Providing small loans at a resonable interest rate to enable a person to start a small business in a developing country is termed
    Grameen Bank
  61. The top of the groundwater below the soil surface is called
    the water table
  62. Relative humidity is a measure of
    the amount of water vapor in the air compared to what it can hold at that temperature
  63. Rain shadow deserts generally occur
    on the leevard side of mountains
  64. Water that accumulates underground, filling all pores and crevices above an impervious layer, is
  65. What is the largest use of water worldwide
  66. Many fresh water wells in coastal areas now yield salty water, The main cause of this problem is
    excessive removal of fresh water causes salt water to move into aquifers
  67. The freshwater in our environment is found mostly in
    polar ice caps and glaciers
  68. Freshwater
    has a salt content of less than .01 percent, constitutes 3 percent of water on earth, is constantly being naturally recycled
  69. Which federal law was passed in 1972 to protect US waters
    Clean Water Act
  70. Channelizing streams to redirect water flow
    may cause flooding in another area
  71. What percentage of the world's population lacks safe drinking water
    20 percent
  72. The greates hazard of domestic sewage waste is its
    potential for harboring disease-causing organisms
  73. the wast water stream entering a sewage treatment plant is generally
    99 percent water and 1 percent polluting materials
  74. Secondary treatment, or biological treatment of waste water mainly involves
    allowing bateria and other organisms to feed on organic materials
  75. Final disinfection of waste water in the US is most generally done by adding
    chlorine gas to the water
  76. All pollutants that enter natural water bodies via pipes are known as
    point source pllutants
  77. Examples of non point source pollutants include
    fertilizers pesticides stormwater runoff
  78. Eutrophication refers to the ecosystem changes that occur with the introduction of
    excess nutrients
  79. The presence of a substance in the environment that because of its chemical composition in quantity prevents the functioning of natural processes and produces considerable environmental and health effects is the EPA definition of pollution
  80. The process whereby chemicla pollutants become concentrated through passage up the food chain is called
  81. The best long term solution to the problem of eutrophication is
    a program of reducing inputs of nutrients and sediments
  82. Which state agency administers the Clean Water Act
  83. Nontidal wetlands should be preserved because they
    store water and reduce runoff, absorb nutrients from the water, allow sediments to settle
  84. Removing sediment from river water for drinking water uses what process
  85. In Virginia, what percent of municipal waste is recycled
    40 percent
  86. Most municipal solid waste in the US is
    disposed in landfills
  87. The treated water released from the waste water treatment plant is called
  88. Waste to energy facilities
    burn organic wastes to produce heat energy reduces the wieght and volume of material that must be stored in landfills may emit toxic gases to the atmosphere
  89. The percent of municipal waste placed in landfills is approximately
    55 percent
  90. The greatest component of municipal solid wast is
    paper and paperboard
  91. What percentage of the Virginia population depends upon groundwater for their water supply
    50 percent
  92. NPDES permits do what
    set waste water discharge limits
  93. Two major categories of potenially toxic chemicals are
    heavy metals and synthetic organics
  94. During the lifespan of a chemical
    it maybe hazardous or toxic at any stage during its lifetime either in its pure state or combined with other substances
  95. The law that provides for the identification and clean up of abandoned toxic waste sites is
    The super fund Act
  96. The legislation that requires cradle to grave tracking of Hazmat is
    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
  97. Which state agency administers the Safe Drinking Water Act
    Department of Health
  98. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium and chromium are considered hazardous because they are
  99. The legislation that requires employers to notify employees of Hazmat they may come in contact with as a part of their jobs
    The Occupational Safety and Health Act
  100. The policy that specifies the ways Hazmat can be transported across state lines is
    Department of Transportation Regulations
  101. What state is the largest exporter of out of state waste
    New York
  102. ------ was a site near Niagara Falls, NY where Hooker Chemical buried toxi wastes in the 1930s and 1940s, and eventually surfaced during the late 1970s
    Love Canal
  103. One of the 3 R's to lessen the amount of wast disposal is
    Recycle, Reuse,
  104. The entire land area from which storm water runoff drains to a particular stream or river is called a
    Drainage Basin
  105. The Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act of 1986 requires what report for companies using or discharging hazardous chemicals
    Toxic Release invortory
  106. Removal of salt from sea water to produce drinking water is referred to as
  107. Whater consumption in modern US homes average around --- galons of water per person per day
  108. Disease causing organisms are known as a
  109. what federal agency administers the Resource Conservation and REcovery Act
  110. Water with pollutants draining from landfills is called