Reproduction system

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Reproduction system
2013-12-01 21:39:48
Biol 224 reproduction biology study guid

Biol 224 Reproduction system
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  1. Understand how the follicles change and mature during the ovarian cycle.
    • Follicular phase (preovulation)
    • 1. primordial follicle
    • 2. Primary follicle
    • 3. Secondary follicle
    • 4. Tertiary follicle
    • Luteal Phase (postovulation):
    • 5.Ovulation releases secondary oocyte
    • 6. Corpus luteum forms
    • 7. Corpus albicans form
  2. When does meiosis II finish in female?
    After the oocye is fertilized
  3. In female, what triggers meiosis II to begin? At what point will it pause?
    • Completion of meiosis I will trigger meiosis II
    • Meiosis II will pause at metaphase II
  4. When does meiosis II occur in females?
    Each month a secondary oocyte will begin meiosis II
  5. In female what type(s) of cells are produced in meiosis I completion process? Are those cells haploid or diploid?
    • 1. Secondary Oocyte
    • 2. 1st polar-body
    • Both haploid
  6. In female, when  will meiosis I  begin again?
    • At puberty
    • Every month, some primary oocytes are activated and will complete meiosis I
  7. When does meiosis I occur in females? At what point does this process pause?
    Between 3 to 7 months gestation (development)

    It stops at prophase I
  8. At the end of mitosis are the cells produced haploid or diploid?
  9. When does mitosis occur in females?
    In females all mitosis occur before birth 
  10. What type(s) of cells are produced as a result of mitosis during oogenesis?
    • 1. Other Oogomeium (stem cells) that divide again (go through mitosis)
    • 2. Primary Oocytes that will go trough meiosis
  11. How will changes in estrogen affect LH levels?
    • Maturing follicles secrete estroge
    • At low levels estrogen inhibit LH
    • As estrogen level increases, this inhibition is lost.
  12. What hormone will trigger the maturation of the ovarian follicles?
    FSH will trigger secondary follicle to mature into tertiary follicle
  13. List the two phases that comprise the ovarian cycle.
    • Follicular phase (preovulation)
    • Luteal Phase (postovulation)
  14. Understand the functions of the layers of the endometrium.
    • Functional zone: 1. Contains most of the uterine glands 2. Undergoes dramatic changes during menstrual cycle
    • Basilar zone: Attach the endometrium to tha myometrium
  15. List the layers of the uterine wall.
    • Perimetriun: Serosa, outer layer
    • Myometrium: contracts during birth
    • Endomatrium: has two regions 1.Functional zone 2.Basilar zone
  16. List the processes involved in spermatogenesis.
    • 1. Mitosis of spermatogonia
    • 2. Meiosis (produce spermatids)
    • 3. Spermiogenesis (maturation of sperm)
  17. Know how levels of estrogen, LH, FSH, inhibin, GnRH and progesterone will change during the secretory phase.
    • Low blood level of GnRH, FSH, and LH
    • High level of Progesterone, Estrogen, and Inhibin
  18. How does the uterine lining change during the secretory phase?
    • 1.Uterine glands enlarge and increase secretion
    • 2. Uterine lining thicken (prepare for implantation)
  19. Know how levels of progesterone, estrogen, GnRH, LH, inhibin and FSH change during prolifertive phase.
    • High blood  level of Estrogen, LH, and GnRH
    • Spike  in FSH & Inhibin
    • Low blood level of Progesterone
  20. How does the uterine lining change during the proliferative phase? What hormone causes this?
    Epithelial cells multiply in the functional zone stimulated by increase level of estrogen
  21. Know how levels of estrogen, LH, FSH, inhibin, GnRH and progesterone will change during the menses phase.
    Estrogen, LH, FSH, Inhibin, GnRH, and progesterone will be relatively low (around 15 IU/L)
  22. Which layer of the uterine lining degenerates during the menses phase?
    Functional zone of endometrium
  23. At which phase does the uterine cycle begin?
    Menes phase
  24. List the phases of the uterine cycle.
    • 1. Menes phase
    • 2. Proliferative phase
    • 3. Secretory phase
  25. How long does the corpus luteum last if fertilization does not occur?
    12 days
  26. How will hormone levels change following ovulation?
    Increase level of progesterone & inhibin
  27. Which hormone triggers ovulation?
  28. What role does progesterone play during the luteal phase?
    Maintain uterine lining (stimulation of endometrium growth and secretion)
  29. What happens to the cells after mitosis during spermatogenesis?
    • spermatogonium stays in the seminiferous tubule basal membrane
    • Primary spermatocyte will be pushed towards the lumen and undergo meiosis
  30. What cells are produced as a result of mitosis in males? Are those cells haploid or dipoid?
    • Two duplicated diploid cells
    • 1. spermatogonium
    • 2. primary spermatocyte
  31. What are the stem cells that are involved in spermatogenesis referred to as:
  32. List the pathway that sperm moves through.
    Seminiferous tubles→Rate testis→epididymis→Ducts deferens→Seminal gland→ejaculatory duct→Prostatic urethra→Membraneous urethra→Pinale urethra→Externat urethral orifice
  33. In male, what cells are produced during meiosis II? Are they haploid or diploid?
    • Four Spermotids (immature sperm cells)
    • Haploid
  34. Flagellum
    Spermatozoon tail that form during spemiogenesis
  35. Acrosome
    Developed during spermioganasis allow sperm to penetrate ovum
  36. Define spermiogenesis.
    • Maturation of sperm cells
    • Spermotid mature into spermatozoon (a mature sperm cell)
  37. In male, at the end of meiosis I, what cells are produced? Are the cells haploid or diploid?
    • Two Secondary spermocytes
    • Haploid
  38. The stem cells that are part of oogenesis are referred to as: