Nutrition lecture 4 - Carbohydrates

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Nutrition lecture 4 - Carbohydrates
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2013-12-09 20:20:21
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Nutrition lecture Carbohydrates
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Nutrition lecture 4 - Carbohydrates
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  1. In a carbohydrate how many more H are there than oxygen?
    2x
  2. Plant tisssues typically have _____ carbs while animals have ____ carbs
    • High
    • Low
  3. Instead of carbs animals store energy as?
    Fat
  4. Why dont we want to use protein for our energy?
    Because ti is expensive and carbs are quich and cheap
  5. Are triose and tetrose carbs important? Where do we find them?
    • NO
    • usually biological accident
  6. What are the 3 important pentose carbs?
    • Ribose
    • Deoxyribose 
    • Xylose
  7. Pentose carbs are often used for what?
    Structural building blocks
  8. What is the most important length of carbohydrate in terms of nutrition?
    6 carbons or a hexose
  9. Why did they used to call glucose dextrose?
    Cause it was dextro rotary was the first molecule to reflect light tot the right
  10. 2 places we see energy stored as glucose?
    Honey and grapes
  11. What is inulin?
    Polymer of fructose
  12. 2 components of lactose?
    Galactose and glucose
  13. Do most animals have enszymes to break down sucrose? What happens if you feed to baby piglets?
    • NO
    • Just feeding bacteria, can cause cramps and diarhea
  14. Mammalian enzymes break down?
    Alpha bonds
  15. Bacteria break down?
    Beta linkages
  16. Maltose has what type of bond? What about isomaltose?
    • alpha 1,4
    • alpha 1,6
  17. Amyloses structure is? While amylopectin is?
    • Straight
    • branched
  18. What type of feeds do we see glycogen in?
    Only animal feeds like fish and meat meal
  19. Do we see glycogen in plant tissues?
    No
  20. Cellulose is a polymer of?
    Glucose
  21. Hemicellulose is a polymer of?
    Xylose
  22. In NDF what is included?
    Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin
  23. In ADF what is included?
    Cellulose and lignin
  24. Describe lignin
    Phenyl propane mess
  25. Can anyone break down lignin?
    Nope
  26. 3 places in a monogastric we see carb digestion come from?
    • Pancreas
    • Saliva
    • Intestinal brush border
  27. In the intestine the general rule of thumb is the farther forward the more? and the farther backwards the more?
    • Digestion
    • Absorbtion
  28. What form do sugars have to be in to be absorbed?
    D sugars
  29. 3 FA used by ruminants?
    • Acetate 
    • propionate
    • butyrate
  30. 3 elements in carbs?
    C, H, O
  31. Are all cabrs highly digestible?
    • NO 
    • it includes starches, sugars and fibrous constituents
  32. 2 forms of animal carbs?
    Glycogen and glucose
  33. In plants the insoluble carbs do what?
    Structural componenets
  34. Where can we find trioses and tetroses?
    Intermediaries in TCA cycle etc
  35. function of ribose? (4)
    • Component of genetic material RNA
    • Component of ATP
    • Componenet of NADH
    • component of riboflavin
  36. Deoxyribose function?
    Component of genetic material DNA
  37. When ribose is bound with adenine what is formed?
    adenosine
  38. What is the function of riboflavin?
    • Transfer of electrons in oxidation and reduction reactions
    • transformation of folic acid and pyridoxine into active forms
    • Conversion of tryptophan to niacin
  39. 3  pentose sugars we discussed?
    • Ribose and deoxyribose
    • xylose
    • Arabinose
  40. Where do we find xylose?
    Hemicellulose
  41. what is the main function of xylose?
    component of anti nutritional factor in rye and wheat called soluble pentosans (along with arabinose)
  42. Where do we find arabinose?
    GUms and pectins
  43. What industry is arabinose growing in?
    Canola crushing industry cause being added back to meal
  44. What are the 3 main hexoses we discusssed?
    • Glucose
    • Galactose
    • Fructose
  45. How is glucose commercially produced today?
    Hydrolysis of corn starch
  46. What is the major end product of carb digestion in monogastrics?
    Glucose
  47. 4 functions of galactose?
    • Part of lactose
    • Occurs in galactosides in NS
    • Component of galactolipids in plant leaves
    • Component of raffinose and stachylose which are principle carbs in soybeans
  48. What is the sweetest of the natural sugars?
    Fructose
  49. Where is fructose found?
    Fruits and honey
  50. Inulin is a polysaccharide of?
    Fructose
  51. Is aspartame sweet?
     200x more than table sugar
  52. 3 main reactants used in synthesis of aspartame are?
    • Aspartic acid
    • Phenylalanine
    • Methanol
  53. 4 main dissacharides we discusssed?
    • Sucrose
    • Maltose
    • Lactose
    • Cellobiose
  54. Sucrose is composed of?
    Glucose and fructose
  55. Main places we find sucrose?
    Sugar cane and sugar beet
  56. Maltose is made up of?
    2 glucose molecules
  57. Maltose is often seen as a?
    Intermediate in starch and glycogen breakdown
  58. Maltose is famously used in the production of?
    Beer
  59. Lactose is found?
    ONly in milk
  60. Lactose is made of?
    Glucose and galactose
  61. What is cellobiose?
    2 molecules of beta linked glucose
  62. How is cellobiose related to cellulose? How is it broken down?
    • Basic repeating unit of cellulose
    • cellulase in microbial fermentation
  63. What is stachyose? What is it made of?Where is it found? What is it known for?
    • It is an oligosaccharide
    • 2 galactose 1 glucose and 1 fructose sequentially linked
    • Soy beans
    • Undigestible, causes flatuence and abdominal discomfort, recent research shows may be probiotic
  64. What are polysaccharides? Are they water soluble?
    • high molecular weight
    • hundreds of thousands of sugar molecules
    • No
  65. What is the most important carbs to animal feeding?
    Polysaccharides
  66. Starch is used for what in plants?
    To reserve energy
  67. 2 types of starch granules
    • Amylose
    • Amylopectin
  68. Describe amylose
    • Soluble in water
    • Long unbranched chains of glucose
    • 20-30% starch in most plants
  69. Both amylose and amylopectin use what bond?
    Alpha
  70. Amylopectin differs from amylose via?
    • Contains alpha 1,6 branch points
    • 70-80% of starch
  71. What enzyme does amylopectin require for digestions?
    alpha 1,6 glucosidase
  72. Describe gelatinization? Where is it used mostly? For what stage of animal? often used in conjunction with?
    • application of moist heat allowing rupture of starch granules
    • potatoe starch
    • Young animals mostly pigs and chickens
    • extruders and expanders
  73. 7 polysaccharides we discussed?
    • Starch
    • Glycogen
    • Cellulose
    • Hemicellulose
    • Lignin
    • beta glucan
    • Soluble pentosans or xylans
  74. Glycogen structure is similar to?
    Amylopectin
  75. Glycogen side chains are what compared to amylopectin?
    Shorter
  76. Cellulose is found in?
    Fiber
  77. Is cellulose water soluble?
    No
  78. Cellulose structure resembles closely? BUt is different in that?
    • Amylose
    • beta 1,4 linkages
  79. hemicellulose is found? compare its degradation to cellulose? As the amount in the diet increases what happens?
    • In plant cell walls
    • Less resistant to degradation
    • Higher percentage intake goes down
  80. What can you use to calculate hemicellulose?
    NDF - ADF
  81. where do we find lignin?
    Fills space in plant cell wall between other structural componwenets
  82. what happens to lignin as plant matures?
    INcreases in amount
  83. Where do we find beta glucans? Describe them
    • Bran of cereal grains such as barley oats rye and wheat
    • Linnear unbranched polysaccharides beta 1,3 and 1,4 polysaccharides of glucose units
  84. Why is the beta 1,3 bond of the beta glucan important?
    Increases solubility and allows it to cause viscous digesta and interfere with digestion especially in poultry
  85. Beta glucans are broken down by?
    Beta glucanase
  86. Where do we find pentosans and xylans? What do they do? broken down by? describe its structure
    • Rye and wheat
    • cause poor digestion in poultry
    • xylanase
    • beta linked xylose backbone with arabinose side chains
  87. 3 componenets to carbohydrate use?
    • Digestions
    • absorption
    • metabolism
  88. Can dissacharides be absorbed in the GI tract?
    NO only monosaccharides except in the case of newborns
  89. 3 sources of carbohydrase activity?
    • Salivary glands
    • Pancreas
    • Epitheleal lining of small intestine
  90. Mammalian enzymes only have the capacity to break down?
    alpha linkages
  91. The prinicple carb fed to monogastric animals is?
    Starch
  92. While the salivary amylase breaks down? Which makes starch go to? It is not very effective because?
    • alpha 1 4 linkages
    • dextrins, maltose, and glucose
    • Short period of residence in mouth
  93. why is the little to no carb digestion in the stomach?
    pH is too low for any carbohydrase activity
  94. What is the principle site of carb digestion? Principle enzyme? This digestion is a how many step process? What are the steps?
    • Small intestine
    • Pancreatic amylase
    • 2
    • breakdown to diassachardies and break down to mono's
  95. While starch and amylose are broken down to maltose as their dissacharide what is amylopectin broken down to? Will this substance yield a difference in monosaccharides yielded?
    • isomaltose + maltose
    • no it will still yield 2 glucose when broken down at brush border
  96. Where is the principle site for dissacharide breakdown 
    Brush border
  97. Sucrose breaks down into?
    Glucose + fructose
  98. Which section of the small intestine has the greatest capacity to absorb carbohydrates?
    Duodenum and jejunum or more cranial aspects
  99. Do the stomach and large intestine absorb any carbohydrate?
    Nope
  100. What are the 2 mechanisms of carb absorbtion?
    • Passive diffusion
    • Active transport (may involve specific carrier protein and definitely involves energy)
  101. What are 3 factors affecting the ability for carbohydrates to be absorbed?
    • D configuration only, L config is not absorbed
    • Need a hydroxyl group on C2 in the down position
    • Need a methyl or substitute methyl on C5
  102. What is done with the carbs we break down and absorb?
    • Immediate source of energy for ATP or glycolysis
    • Glycogen precursor
    • Fat synthesis
  103. Bacteria in rumen allow ruminants to break down?
    beta linkages in high forage feedstuffs such as silage
  104. In ruminants what types of carbs are broken down to glucose in the rumen? What is this glucose used for? How does the ruminant get anything out of this?
    • ALL of them litterally everything
    • Bacterial growth and proliferation
    • Ruminant digests the bacteria
  105. Ruminant uses what as a primary energy source? It gets this as a byproduct of?>
    • VFAs
    • Glucose fermentation
  106. What are the 3 VFAs from carb fermentation
    • Acetate
    • butyrate
    • propionate
  107. What is the most common VFA produced during carb fermentation
    Acetate
  108. Acetate has how many carbons
    2
  109. Acetate is primarily formed through the feeding of which feedstuff comparatively
    Roughage
  110. What happens to acetate in the ruminant (IE where does it go) (2)
    • Metabolized through the TCA to produce 24 ATP
    • Can be used for fat synthesis (acetyl coa and then malonyl coa)
  111. Butyrate has how many carbons?
    4
  112. Butyrate is generally at what kind fo proportional levels comapared to other VFAs?
    LOwer
  113. Propionic acid (propionate) is how many carbons?
    3
  114. Levels of propionate increase in animal with what type of feed fed to the animal?
    Concentrate
  115. What is important about propionate?
    Can be used to form glucose
  116. Fermentation of acetate produces how many H? What about butyrate? Propionate?Why can all this H be bad for the animal? What are 2 ways it gets rid of this?
    • 8
    • 4
    • 0
    • Lactic acidosis
    • Add to unsaturated fatty acids
    • Produce methane gas
  117. What is the most energetically favorable VFA? Why would we want acetate in some situations?
    • Propionate
    • Presurcor to fat synth so in a dairy situation need milk fat
  118. In general how does pH effect VFA production
    • Lower pH favors propionate
    • Higher pH favors acetate
  119. 5 factors effecting relative proportion of VFAs? Use some of these to increase acetate production (4). Do the same with propionate (4)
    • Feed intake
    • Frequency of feeding
    • protportions of starch and fiber
    • Size of forage particles
    • Presence of rumen modifiers

    • Feed more frequently
    • increase roughage
    • grind more coarsley
    • include buffers

    • feed less frequently
    • increase concentrate
    • gind feed finely
    • include rumensin
  120. Name 2 carbohydrate related nutritional disease
    • Feedlot bloat
    • lactic acidosis
    • diabetes
    • ketosis

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