Bio 502 Last lecture!!! (Muscles of mastication and the neck)

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  1. List the unpaired cartilages of the layrynx.
    • Unpaired:
    • thyroid
    • cricoid
    • epiglottis
  2. true or false: a infection to the nervous system in the neck may affect the nerve supply to the arms. 
    Explain your answer.
    TRUE. the roots of the brachial plexus run through the posterior triangle of the neck. Therefore an infection to the nervous system in the neck could affect arm function.
  3. For the following question, select:
    A) if 1 is true
    B) if 1 and 2 are true
    C) if 2 and 3 are true
    D) if 3 and 4 are true
    E) if 2 and 4 are true
    F) if all are false
    G) if all are true

    A) the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein share a fascial sheath
    B) a component of the superficial fascia is innervated by the cervical branches of the facial nerve (CN VII)
    C) sternohyoid and trapezius share a fascial sheath
    D) the carotid sinus and the vagus nerve share a fascial sheath
    G
  4. Trace the primary blood supply to the anterior belly of digastric back to the arch of the aorta on the left side of the body.
    Anterior belly of digastric / branches of external carotid artery / common carotid artery / arch of the aorta
  5. Of the infra and supra hyoid muscles, which of them were derived from pharyngeal arches? Be specific. How can you make this determination?
    • anterior & posterior bellies of digastric
    • mylohyoid
    • styloid hyoid

    You know this because these muscles are supplied by special visceral efferent fibers from the cranial nerves.
  6. Describe the relationship between C1 fibers, hypoglossal nerve and ansa cervicalis in the neck.
    Some of the C1 fibers travel with the hypoglossal nerve for a time. A cluster of these fibers break off and travel inferiorly, forming the superior root of ansa cervicalis and some of the fibers continue traveling with hypoglossal for a bit longer before also branching off to innervate geniohyoid and thyrohyoid.
  7. Sternohyoid and splenius capitis are both most likely innervated by C3 fibers. Are these muscles innervated by branches from the same nerve rami? Explain your answer.
    They are innervated by branches from different rami. Sternohyoid is innervated by ansa cervicalis, which includes fibers from the anterior rami of spinal levels C1-C3 (fibers from C2&C3 help form the inferior root of ansa cervicalis). A distinct set of fibers from the posterior rami of C3 contribute to the innervation of splenius capitis.
  8. In which direction(s) does the hyoid bone move while swallowing? Which muscle(s) performs this/these actions?
    The hyoid moves superiorly (and posteriorly while swallowing). These actions are  performed by stylohyoid, mylohyoid, geniohyoid and digastric.
  9. Which muscles participate in rotating the head and neck to the left side of the body (be specific about side)?
    • The right sternocleidomastoid 
    • The left splenius capitis
    • The left splenius cervicis
    • The left longssimus cervicis muscles
    • The left iliocostalis cervicis muscles
  10. True or false: if the posterior rami of the cervical nerves were blocked, the ability to rotate the head to either side would be lost. Explain your answer.
    FALSE. sternocleidomastoid can rotate the head, and is innervated by the accessory nerve (CN XI), whose motor root carries fibers from the anterior rami of C1-C5.
  11. For the following question, select:
    A) if 1 is true
    B) if 1 and 2 are true
    C) if 2 and 3 are true
    D) if 3 and 4 are true
    E) if 2 and 4 are true
    F) if all are false
    G) if all are true

    1) superior thyroid branches off of the external carotid artery at approximately C5
    2) facial artery terminates along the temporal region
    3) maxillary artery supplies the masseter muscle via the deep temporal arteries
    4) The facial artery passes through the parotid gland
    F
  12. A) Which nerve innervates the posterior belly of the digastric muscle?
    B) Trace the geographic path of the nerve from its origin in the brain or the appropriate spinal levels to the target muscle.
    C) State the type of impulse innervating the target.
    • A) Nerve to stylohyoid or nerve to digastric, both from facial nerve (CN VII)
    • B) Pons / motor root (mixes with intermediate nerve) / internal acoustic meatus / continues as facial nerve / enlarges to form the geniculate ganglion / enters the facial canal and shrinks back down to normal size, continues as the facial nerve / immediately before or after exiting canal gives, off nerves to stylohyoid and/or nerve to digastric / posterior belly of digastric
    • C) special visceral efferent
  13. Which muscles participate and/or facilitate a wide opening of the mandible? Be sure to list the conditions under which each may act, if appropriate, and the specific function it performs
    • 1) Digastric, functions to lower the mandible (when the hyoid is fixed)
    • 2) geniohyoid, functions to lower the mandible (when the hyoid is fixed)
    • 3) medial pterygoid, functions to protrude the jaw
    • 4) lateral pterygoid, functions to protrude the jaw
    • 5) superficial head of masseter, protrudes the jaw
    • 6) Mylohyoid, when hyoid is fixed can very weakly lower mandible
  14. True or false (if false provide the correct information):
    All but one of the infrahyoid muscles are innervated by special visceral efferent fibers.
    FALSE. None of the infrahyoid muscles are supplied by special visceral efferent fibers
  15. If the hypoglossal nerve has a lesion on it, the function of which muscles in the anterior triangle of the neck will be compromised? Explain your response.
    None of the muscles will be compromised because none of them are innervated by the hypoglossal nerve. The fibers of C1 travel WITH the hypoglossal nerve on their way to innervate the geniohyoid, thyrohyoid, sternohyoid, omohyoid, and sternothyroid. But hypoglossal does not participate in the innervation of the muscles in the anterior triangle.
  16. Which non-masticatory muscles can participate in movement of the mandible?
    • Geniohyoid
    • digastric
    • mylohyoid
  17. If the nerve to lateral pterygoid is non-functional, what function will be compromised? Justify your response.
    • It depends. If lateral pterygoid is innervated by the nerve to lateral pterygoid, then mandibular protraction will be compromised, meaning that it will be quite difficult to open widely. Although the superficial head of masseter and medial pterygoid assist with protraction, they are not likely to be able to do much without lateral pterygoid taking the lead.
    • However, if lateral pterygoid muscle is innervated by buccal from the mandibular division of trigeminal (V3) then everything is just fine.
  18. Trace the blood supply/supplies of the masseter muscle back to the arch of the aorta on the left side of the body.
    1) Masseteric branch / maxillary artery / external carotid artery / common carotid artery / arch of the aorta

    2) Facial artery / external carotid artery / common carotid artery / arch of the aorta
  19. How do the motions associated with opening the mouth wide differ from those of opening the mouth only slightly?
    During a wide open, the condylar head moves anteriorly onto the articular tubercle and the mandible  is depressed, whereas during a shallow open, the anterior movement is greatly reduced or does not occur.
  20. Describe the relationship of geniohyoid, mylohyoid and the appropriate belly of digastric to one another.
    • These muscles all travel from the interior surface of the mandible to the hyoid bone. Traveling inferior to superior, these three muscles are layered relative to one another as follows:
    • anterior belly of digastric: most inferior
    • mylohyoid: superior to anterior belly of digastric
    • geniohyoid: superior to mylohyoid

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ChathamBio502
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249607
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Bio 502 Last lecture!!! (Muscles of mastication and the neck)
Updated:
2017-12-03 18:02:50
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Neck larynx pharynx
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Neck, larynx, pharynx
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