Neck et al

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Neck et al
2013-11-29 11:37:04
Neck larynx pharynx

Neck, larynx, pharynx
Show Answers:

  1. list the paired and unpaired cartilages of the layrynx and label each as "paired"or "unpaired".
    • Unpaired:
    • thyroid
    • cricoid
    • epiglottis

    • paired:
    • arytenoid
    • cuneiform
    • corniculate
  2. Describe how the larynx moves to perform its sphincter function. What does this movement achieve and what is the purpose of this function?
    The larynx moves superiorly and anteriorly when acting as a sphincter. In moving in this manner, the laryngeal inlet is narrowed and it facilitates the opening of the esophagus. These actions help direct swallowed solid and liquid down the pharynx and esophagus rather than down the respiratory passages.
  3. True or false (if false, provide the correct information):
    the vocal ligament lies superior and lateral to the vestibular ligament.
    FALSE. the vestibular ligament is superior and lateral to the vocal ligament
  4. If an arterial blockage occurred on the left side of the body at the C5 level in the carotid system, which portions of the dura mater would experience compromised blood flow and why?
    All three portions (anterior, middle and posterior) portions of the dura would experience compromised blood flow because an arterial blockage in the carotid system at the C5 level would mean that the common carotid artery would be blocked. the primary blood supplies to the three dural sections is from the anterior meningeal arteries (to the anterior cranial fossa off of the internal carotid artery), the middle meningeal artery (to the middle cranial fossa, off of the maxillary/external carotid artery) and the posterior meningeal artery (to the posterior cranial fossa, also off of the external carotid artery, via the ascending pharyngeal artery).
  5. true or false: a infection to the nervous system in the neck may affect the nerve supply to the arms. 
    Explain your answer.
    TRUE. the roots of the brachial plexus run through the posterior triangle of the neck. Therefore an infection to the nervous system in the neck could affect arm function.
  6. For the following question, select:
    A) if 1 is true
    B) if 1 and 2 are true
    C) if 2 and 3 are true
    D) if 3 and 4 are true
    E) if 2 and 4 are true
    F) if all are false
    G) if all are true

    A) the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein share a fascial sheath
    B) a component of the superficial fascia is innervated by the cervical branches of the facial nerve
    C) sternohyoid and trapezius share a fascial sheath
    D) the carotid sinus and the vagus nerve share a fascial sheath
  7. Trace the primary blood supply to the anterior belly of digastric back to the arch of the aorta on the left side of the body.
    Anterior belly of digastric / branches of facial artery / external carotid artery / common carotid artery / arch of the aorta
  8. of the infra and supra hyoid muscles, which of them were derived from pharyngeal arches? Be specific. How can you make this determination?
    • anterior and posterior bellies of digastric
    • mylohyoid
    • styloid hyoid

    you know this because these muscles are supplied by special visceral efferent fibers from the cranial nerves.
  9. Describe the relationship between C1 fibers, hypoglossal nerve and ansa cervicalis in the neck.
    Some of the C1 fibers travel with the hypoglossal nerve for a time. A cluster of these fibers break off and travel inferiorly, forming the superior root of ansa cervicalis, while some of the fibers continue traveling with hypoglossal on their way to innervate geniohyoid and thyrohyoid.
  10. Sternohyoid and splenius capitis are both innervated by C2 and C3 fibers. Are these muscles innervated by the same fibers fibers? explain your answer.
    They are innervated by different sets of fibers. Sternohyoid is innervated by ansa cervicalis, which includes fibers from spinal levels C1-C3. Fibers from C2&C3 form the inferior root of ansa cervicalis. A distinct set of C2&C3 fibers, not associated with ansa cervicalis, contribute to the innervation of splenius capitis. Additionally, sternohyoid is innervated by anterior rami while splenius capitis is innervated by posterior rami.
  11. In which direction(s) does the hyoid bone move while swallowing? Which muscle(s) performs this/these actions?
    The hyoid moves superiorly and posteriorly while swallowing. These actions are  performed by stylohyoid.
  12. Which muscles participate in rotating the head and neck to the left side of the body?
    • The left sternocleidomastoid 
    • the left splenius capitis
    • the left splenius cervicis
    • the left erector spinea muscles
  13. True or false: if the posterior rami of the cervical nerves were blocked, the ability to rotate the head to either side would be lost. Explain your answer.
    FALSE. sternocleidomastoid can rotate the head, and is innervated by anterior rami of C2-C4.
  14. If the primary arteries supplying omohyoid were 100% blocked, would this affect the blood supply to sternohyoid? Explain your answer.
    Yes, because omohyoid is supplied primarily by lingual and superior thyroid. Superior thyroid is also the sole primary supply for sternohyoid
  15. For the following question, select:
    A) if 1 is true
    B) if 1 and 2 are true
    C) if 2 and 3 are true
    D) if 3 and 4 are true
    E) if 2 and 4 are true
    F) if all are false
    G) if all are true

    A) superior thyroid branches off of the external carotid artery at approximately C4/C5
    B) facial artery terminates as the angular artery
    C) maxillary artery supplies the masseter muscle via the deep temporal arteries
    D) the posterior belly of digastric and sternocleidomastoid receive their primary blood supply from the same arteries
  16. A) Which nerve innervates the posterior belly of the digastric muscle?
    B) Trace the nerve supply from its origin in the brain or to the appropriate spinal levels to the target muscle.
    C) State the type of fibers innervating the target.
    • A) The facial nerve (CN VII)
    • B) brain stem / internal acoustic meatus / geniculate ganglion / facial nerve / stylomastoid foramen / posterior belly of digastric
    • C) special visceral efferent fibers
  17. Which muscles participate and/or facilitate in lowering the mandible? Be sure to list the conditions under which they may act and the specific function they perform, if appropriate.
    • 1) Anterior belly of digastric, functions to lower the mandible (when the hyoid is fixed)
    • 2) geniohyoid, functions to lower the mandible (when the hyoid is fixed)
    • 3) medial pterygoid, functions to protrude the jaw
    • 4) lateral pterygoid, functions to protrude the jaw
  18. True or false (if false provide the correct information):
    All but one of the infrahyoid muscles are innervated by special visceral efferent fibers.
    FALSE. None of the infrahyoid muscles are supplied by special visceral efferent fibers
  19. If the hypoglossal nerve has a lesion on it, the function of which muscles in the anterior triangle of the neck will be compromised? Explain your response.
    None of the muscles will be compromised because none of them are innervated by the hypoglossal nerve. The fibers of C1 travel WITH the hypoglossal nerve on their way to innervate the geniohyoid, thyrohyoid, sternohyoid, omohyoid, and sternothyroid. But hypoglossal does not participate in the innervation of the muscles in the anterior triangle.
  20. Describe the relationship of geniohyoid, mylohyoid and the appropriate belly of digastric to one another.
    • These muscles all travel from the interior surface of the mandible to the hyoid bone. Traveling inferior to superior, these three muscles are layered relative to one another as follows:
    • anterior belly of digastric: most inferior
    • mylohyoid: superior to anterior belly of digastric
    • geniohyoid: superior to mylohyoid