people are predisposed to be wary of those not in their ingroup
we are more likely to distribute resources to ingroup membersi.e. Tajifel & Turner experiment
Tajifel & Turner experiment
proved ingroup favoritism
When randomly assigned to groups, participants still chose to give more rewards to members in their group than to others outside of it. Only difference between groups was the preference of artist
What is the best way to reduce prejudice, ingroup favoritism?
Cooperation! Working together on a shared problem brings people together
cognitive functions which help us to organize information quickly
putting someone who defies a stereotype in a different category
i.e. One would say that Barack Obama is an unusual black man because he is successful, not that Barack Obama is an example of how the stereotype of black men being less intelligent is false
people do worse when they are reminded that their group is stereotyped to perform worse in a specific area
i.e. women perform worse on math exams when reminded of their gender right before the exam
Outgroup homogeneity bias
we view outgroup members as more homogeneous
"they're all alike"
cognitive factor of social relations
Social Identity Theory
Treating ingroups more favorably than outgroups can boost self esteem
Realistic Conflict Theory
situational factor of social relations
prejudice stems from intergroup competition for limited resources
How did the Hovland & Sears study reveal scapegoating?
The lynching of African-Americans in the South correlated with the drop of cotton prices
Sherif & Sherif study (1969)
boys at summer camp were split into two groups and made to compete against one another. Outgroup characteristics became apparent. To rectify situation, the two groups had to work together in a problem solving capacity
What are 5 reasons that stereotypes & prejudices survive?
1. humor, media
2. the ultimate attribution error
3. self-fulfilling prophecy
5. stereotype threat
The ultimate attribution error
expanded fundamental attribution error (for an entire group)