Psychology: Chapter 12 (part 2)

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  1. What are the three components which make up attitudes?
    • affect (feelings)
    • behavior
    • cognition (thoughts, beliefs)
  2. 5 ways we form attitudes
    • social learning
    • direct experience
    • social comparison
    • genetic factors
    • self perception
  3. LaPiere experiment (1934)
    Visited nice establishments w. a Chinese couple and was allowed to visit almost all places, despite owners claiming that they would not allow a Chinese couple inside
  4. What are the three components of social relations? Explain them.
    • Prejudice (affect towards members of group)
    • Stereotype (Belief or cognition about members of a group)
    • Discrimination (Behavior¬†directed towards people on the basis of their group membership
  5. What are four ways that stereotypes and prejudice form? Explain.
    • personality factors (some are predisposed to be prejudiced)
    • social learning theory (social/family/gender roles)
    • cognitive factors (ingoup/outgroup bias)
    • situational factors (scapegoating, realistic conflict theory)
  6. ingroup/outgroup bias (2)
    people are predisposed to be wary of those not in their ingroup
  7. ingroup favoritism
    we are more likely to distribute resources to ingroup membersi.e. Tajifel & Turner experiment
  8. Tajifel & Turner experiment
    • proved ingroup favoritism
    • When randomly assigned to groups, participants still chose to give more rewards to members in their group than to others outside of it. Only difference between groups was the preference of artist
  9. What is the best way to reduce prejudice, ingroup favoritism?
    Cooperation! Working together on a shared problem brings people together
  10. stereotypes
    cognitive functions which help us to organize information quickly
  11. subtyping
    • putting someone who defies a stereotype in a different category¬†
    • i.e. One would say that Barack Obama is an unusual black man because he is successful, not that Barack Obama is an example of how the stereotype of black men being less intelligent is false
  12. stereotype threat
    • people do worse when they are reminded that their group is stereotyped to perform worse in a specific area
    • i.e. women perform worse on math exams when reminded of their gender right before the exam
  13. Outgroup homogeneity bias
    • we view outgroup members as more homogeneous
    • "they're all alike"
    • cognitive factor of social relations
  14. Social Identity Theory
    Treating ingroups more favorably than outgroups can boost self esteem
  15. Realistic Conflict Theory
    • situational factor of social relations
    • prejudice stems from intergroup competition for limited resources
  16. How did the Hovland & Sears study reveal scapegoating?
    The lynching of African-Americans in the South correlated with the drop of cotton prices
  17. Sherif & Sherif study (1969)
    boys at summer camp were split into two groups and made to compete against one another. Outgroup characteristics became apparent. To rectify situation, the two groups had to work together in a problem solving capacity
  18. What are 5 reasons that stereotypes & prejudices survive?
    • 1. humor, media
    • 2. the ultimate attribution error
    • 3. self-fulfilling prophecy
    • 4. subtyping
    • 5. stereotype threat
  19. The ultimate attribution error
    expanded fundamental attribution error (for an entire group)
  20. Explicit vs implicit racism
    • explicit (old fashioned) racism: overt discrimination
    • implicit (modern) racism: outward egalitarianism, but holding racist attitudes
  21. mere exposure effect
    • The more we are exposed to stimuli, the more we like them
    • i.e. we prefer our own mirror image
  22. Situational & personal factors in realtionships
    • Propinquity (mere exposure effect)
    • Similarity (the matching hypothesis)
    • Reciprocal Liking
    • Physical attractiveness (symmetrical & average looking faces)
  23. Propinquity's affect on relationships
    The best single predictor of whether or not people will be friends is how close they live

    i.e. Westage Experiement @ MIT
  24. Gender differences in attractiveness ratings
    • men seek young, fertile looking women & are more threatened by sexual infidelity
    • women seek older men with more financial resources & are more threatened by emotional infidelity
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Psychology: Chapter 12 (part 2)
2013-11-29 16:13:11

psych ch 12
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