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The four different approaches to personality
- The trait approach
- the psychodynamic approach
- the cognitive social learning approach
- the humanistic approach
Consistency vs stability in personality
- consistency: is X always like that?
- stability: has X changes since September
people often behave less consistently than expected
Eyseneck's 3 dimensions of personailty
- psychoticism - considerate
- extraversion - introversion
- neuroticism - stability
The trait approach
The interactionalists approach
situations control behavior in a given instance and broad consistencies do exist
both consistency & stability are correct
the trait apporach
people have a number of characteristics or traits such as honesty, aggressiveness or anxiousness that control specific types of behavior
The ideographic approach to trait theory
we cannot specify a limited number of traits that accurately describe people's personalities
ex. Allport (18000)
The nomothetic approach to treat theory
We can specify a limited number of basic traits that we use to accurately describe personality
ex. Cattell (16), Eyseneck (3), the Big 5
How do introverts function in a way that is neurologically different from extroverts?
- introverts experience more cortical arousal from events than extraverts do; this over arousal leads them to withdraw from activities
- extraverts have more behavioral approach system (BAS) than behavioral inhibition system (BIS)
What are the Big Five Personality dimensions?
- neurotocism/ emotional stabilty
How are the Big Five personality factors similar to Eyseneck's 3 Dimensions of Personality?
Each trait is on a continuum in three theories
What are the two different types of psychological testing?
objective tests and personality tests
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
- most widely used personality instrument
- consists of 567 questions
Studies of twins reveal that personality differences are genetically determined how much?
What are 4 criticisms of the trait theory?
- weak predictions
- does not explain the "why"
- does not account for cultural influence and norms
- relies on self report
The psychodynamic approach to personality
- People's behavior is controlled by inner forces of which they are unaware
- the nature of the unconscious forces depends on childhood expierience
the id's boundless drive for immediate gratification
the ego's capacity to delay gratification
Id, Ego & superego
- id: pleasure principle
- ego: reality principle, mediator
- superego: moral ideals and consciousness
What is the purpose of defense mechanisms?
to cope with stress
changing an unacceptable impulse into its opposite
transforming an unacceptable impulse to a productive product
Freud's Psychosexual stages & their connection to personality
- oral stage
- anal stage
- phallic stage
- latency stage
- genital stage
Freud believed that progress through these stages affected personality
Two examples of projective tests
- Rorschach Inkblot
- Thematic Apperception: tell a story about the picture
What does the psychodynamic approach claim is the cause of psychological disorders?
unconscious conflict over impluses
6 criticisms of the psychodynamic apporach
- 1. few objective observations
- 2. no predictive ability, only explains after the fact
- 3. inaccessible to controlled studies
- 4. the theory is too flexible
- 5. no consideration of cultural factors
- 6. little support for the influence of childhood events on long lasting effects
The behavioralist approach to personality
- people's behavior is controlled by their history of reinforcement and punishments
- behaviors that have been reinforced are more likely to recur
Causes of psychological disorders from the behaviorist perspective
- 1. positive reinforcement of inappropriate behavior
- 2. punishment of appropriate behavior
What are two criticisms of the behaviorists' approach?
- 1. it ignores emotions
- 2. it is low in comprehensiveness
What is the cognitive social-learning theory's perspective on personality?
- people's behavior is affected by cognitive processes such as interpreting the characteristics of a particular situation
- locus of control
How does the social cognitive perspective differ from the behavioralist one?
- social cognitive perspectives include:
- personal constructs (theories on how the world works)
- expectancies & value
- locus of control
Are the Big Five Personality traits culturally biased?
No, they are found across cultures
What causes psychological disorders according to the social cognitive perspective?
irrational or maladaptive thinking
What are two criticisms of the social-cognitive approach?
- 1. does not account enough for individuality
- 2. little emphasis on affective characteristics
The humanist approach on personality
- People are basically good at birth but may acquire a poor self-image if they grow up in a non supportive environment
- The actual self, ideal self, the ought self
The actual self, ideal self & ought slef
- actual: who you are
- ideal: who you want to be
- ought: who you believe you should be
discrepancy between ideal and actual selves leads to depression & disappointment
discrepancy between ought & actual selves leads to anxiety, guilt and shame
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
- self esteem
- love and belonging
- physiological needs (food & shelter)
According to the humanist perspective, what causes psychological disorders?
incongruence between actual & ideal self
What are three criticisms of the humanist theory?
- 1. weak operational definitions (i.e. self actualization)
- 2. lacks explanation about where drives come from
- 3. could be too idealistic
Three psychodynamic theorists since Freud
- Adler (inferiority complex)
- Horney (fear of abandonment)
Two social cognitive theorists
- Kelly (personal constructs)
- Rotter (locus of control)
discrete categories of people based on personality characterists
Eyseneck's hierarchal model of personality
Each subordinate trait (pyschoticism, extraversion, neuroticism) correlates to a component of that trait which correlates to the habitual response level (repeated behaviors) which correlates to the specific response level (initial behavior)
- subordinate trait
- component traits
- habitual responses
- specific responses
3 objective measures of personality
- NEO Personality Inventory
- California Q Sort
- cognitive aspect of self image
- consists of memories, beliefs, & generalizations
- the immediate perception of the self
- when people consider who they are, they emphasize characteristics which distinguish them from those immediately surrounding them
self esteem is a mechanism for monitoring the likelihood of social exclusion
most people identify themselves as better than average in most ways