musculoskeletal again

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Author:
BSNwannabe
ID:
249750
Filename:
musculoskeletal again
Updated:
2013-11-30 00:58:37
Tags:
musculoskeletal nursing
Folders:
med,surg
Description:
med surg musculoskeletal nursing
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  1. Ligament connect what ?
    Bone to bone
  2. Tendons connect what?
    Muscle to bone
  3. Where is red bone marrow found?
    hematopoeitic tissue is found in flat and irregular bones = adults

    Ends of the long bones == in children
  4. What mineral is needed for blood clotting, and proper functioning of the nerves and muscles
    Calcium
  5. Heat?
    an end product of cellular respiration
  6. Muscular system contributes to what?
    heat production
  7. ATP?
    produced by cellular respiration == the direct energy source for muscle contraction
  8. What vitamin is essential for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus?
    Vitamin D
  9. Which vitamins are needed for the production of bone matrix?
    Vitamin A & C
  10. Hormones needed for growth:
    • Growth Hormone
    • Thyroxine
    • Insulin
  11. Growth hormone
    increase mitosis and protein synthesis in growing bones
  12. Thyroxine
    stimulates osteoblasts and also increases energy production from food
  13. Insulin?
    essential for the efficient use of glucose to provide evergy
  14. Parathyroid Hormone
    • secreted by the parathyroid gland
    • increases the removal of calcium and phosphate from bones
  15. the hormone that promotes retention of calcium in bones
    calcitonin
  16. Movement of all planes?
    Ball and socket joint (scapula and humerus) & (pelvic bone and femur)
  17. What is on the joint surface of each bone?
    Articular cartilage
  18. What does articular cartilage do?
    provides a smooth surface
  19. Synovial membrane secretes what? what is the function?
    • synovial fluid
    • fxn== provides a slippery surface to prevent friction as bones move
  20. What happens when a muscle contracts?
    muscle shortens and pulls on bone
  21. Have opposite functions
    Antagonist muscles
  22. Can muscles push?
    no they can only pull
  23. Muscles that work together or have similar functions
    synergistic muscles
  24. Voluntary muscles
    Skeletal muscles
  25. Where do nerve impulses originate?
    The motor areas of the frontal lobe
  26. Coordination of the voluntary muscles is the function of what part of the brain>
    Cerebellum
  27. Neurons in the CNS regulate what?
    muscle tone == the state of slight contraction
  28. True/False: the body is always in a state of slight contraction ?
    True
  29. Muscle tone is important for what?
    posture and coordination
  30. What is the neuromuscular junction?
    the termination of the motor neuron at the muscle fiber
  31. Most common neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction
    Acetylcholine
  32. What are some data that should be collected during a neurovascular check?
    • Movement
    • Sensation
    • Pulses
    • Cap refill
  33. Health history of patient should include what>
    • -injury? 
    • -occupation and activities?
    • - risk factors ( family hx)
    • - health status
    • - diet ( calcium and vit D ?)
  34. Physical Exam: 3 areas of musculoskeletal data collection?
    • inspection
    • Palpation
    • Range of Motion
  35. Grating sound as joint or bone moves?
    crepitation
  36. What should you palpate for?
    warmth, tenderness in areas of swelling, and areas where patient reports pain
  37. When assessing for joint mobility, what are you observing?
    ROM, how patient performs ADLs
  38. Normal calcium levels?
    8.5 - 10.5 mg/dL
  39. Hypercalcemia is related to?
    bone disease
  40. hypocalcemia is related to ?
    poor dietary intake
  41. Alkaline Phosphatase increases indicate what?
    a bone abnormality ( metastatic bone cancer)
  42. What can cause an increase in CK levels?
    IM injections
  43. 3D visualization of the area, produces the best image?
    MRI
  44. What should the nurse inform the patient when they are having a X-ray done?
    • that they should lie still during the exam 
    • the table will be cold and hard
  45. What does a bone density scan measure?
    Bone strength and weight bearing abilities
  46. Osteoporosis is usually diagnosed by what?
    DEXA - bone scan
  47. Rhabdomyolysis is associated with what, and can cause what?
    • associated with muscle destruction
    • and can cause renal disease
  48. An invasive procedure, that allows visualization of joint?
    arthroscopy
  49. What is something the nurse would have to get from a patient before arthroscopy can be done?
    a signed consent
  50. Used to confirm cancer, surgical extraction of bone or muscle tissue
    Biposy
  51. Nursing interventions for patient after bone biopsy is done?
    • inspect site for bleeding, swelling, hematoma, 
    • do not move area for 8-12 hours
    • vitals 
    • neuro checks
  52. Measures a muscles electrical impulses, aids in the diagnosis of muscle disease or nerve damage
    electromyography
  53. How many bones are in the vertebral column?
    • 7 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
  54. Small sacs of synovial fluid between joint and structures of friction that cross over the joint?
    Bursae
  55. What happens to your musculoskeletal system when you get older?
    1. Bone calcium loss == fractures

    2. articular cartilage wears down == joint stiffness && joint pain

    3. muscle strength decreases == falls
  56. What are some nurse - patient teaching for radiographic studies with contrast medium?
    Teach the patient that there might be pain as the dye is injected

    Ask patient of any allergies

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