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Ligament connect what ?
Bone to bone
Tendons connect what?
Muscle to bone
Where is red bone marrow found?
hematopoeitic tissue is found in flat and irregular bones = adults
Ends of the long bones == in children
What mineral is needed for blood clotting, and proper functioning of the nerves and muscles
an end product of cellular respiration
Muscular system contributes to what?
produced by cellular respiration == the direct energy source for muscle contraction
What vitamin is essential for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus?
Which vitamins are needed for the production of bone matrix?
Vitamin A & C
Hormones needed for growth:
- Growth Hormone
increase mitosis and protein synthesis in growing bones
stimulates osteoblasts and also increases energy production from food
essential for the efficient use of glucose to provide evergy
- secreted by the parathyroid gland
- increases the removal of calcium and phosphate from bones
the hormone that promotes retention of calcium in bones
Movement of all planes?
Ball and socket joint (scapula and humerus) & (pelvic bone and femur)
What is on the joint surface of each bone?
What does articular cartilage do?
provides a smooth surface
Synovial membrane secretes what? what is the function?
- synovial fluid
- fxn== provides a slippery surface to prevent friction as bones move
What happens when a muscle contracts?
muscle shortens and pulls on bone
Have opposite functions
Can muscles push?
no they can only pull
Muscles that work together or have similar functions
Where do nerve impulses originate?
The motor areas of the frontal lobe
Coordination of the voluntary muscles is the function of what part of the brain>
Neurons in the CNS regulate what?
muscle tone == the state of slight contraction
True/False: the body is always in a state of slight contraction ?
Muscle tone is important for what?
posture and coordination
What is the neuromuscular junction?
the termination of the motor neuron at the muscle fiber
Most common neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction
What are some data that should be collected during a neurovascular check?
- Cap refill
Health history of patient should include what>
- -occupation and activities?
- - risk factors ( family hx)
- - health status
- - diet ( calcium and vit D ?)
Physical Exam: 3 areas of musculoskeletal data collection?
- Range of Motion
Grating sound as joint or bone moves?
What should you palpate for?
warmth, tenderness in areas of swelling, and areas where patient reports pain
When assessing for joint mobility, what are you observing?
ROM, how patient performs ADLs
Normal calcium levels?
8.5 - 10.5 mg/dL
Hypercalcemia is related to?
hypocalcemia is related to ?
poor dietary intake
Alkaline Phosphatase increases indicate what?
a bone abnormality ( metastatic bone cancer)
What can cause an increase in CK levels?
3D visualization of the area, produces the best image?
What should the nurse inform the patient when they are having a X-ray done?
- that they should lie still during the exam
- the table will be cold and hard
What does a bone density scan measure?
Bone strength and weight bearing abilities
Osteoporosis is usually diagnosed by what?
DEXA - bone scan
Rhabdomyolysis is associated with what, and can cause what?
- associated with muscle destruction
- and can cause renal disease
An invasive procedure, that allows visualization of joint?
What is something the nurse would have to get from a patient before arthroscopy can be done?
a signed consent
Used to confirm cancer, surgical extraction of bone or muscle tissue
Nursing interventions for patient after bone biopsy is done?
- inspect site for bleeding, swelling, hematoma,
- do not move area for 8-12 hours
- neuro checks
Measures a muscles electrical impulses, aids in the diagnosis of muscle disease or nerve damage
How many bones are in the vertebral column?
- 7 cervical
- 12 thoracic
- 5 lumbar
Small sacs of synovial fluid between joint and structures of friction that cross over the joint?
What happens to your musculoskeletal system when you get older?
1. Bone calcium loss == fractures
2. articular cartilage wears down == joint stiffness && joint pain
3. muscle strength decreases == falls
What are some nurse - patient teaching for radiographic studies with contrast medium?
Teach the patient that there might be pain as the dye is injected
Ask patient of any allergies