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Which organ forms urine? (slide 1)
What is the urinary tract composed of?
- ureters transport urine to bladder
- bladder stores urine
- urethra eliminates urine
What are the functions of the kidneys?
- excrete waste by forming urine
- regulate blood volume and blood pressure
- regulation of erythrocyte production (erythropoietin)
Where is the kidney positioned?
- between t12 and l3
- right kidney is 2 cm lower than left
What do they kidney's support?
the adremal glands on the superior region
What are the 3 layers that surround and support the kidney?
- Fibrous capsule (shape and protect)
- Perinephric fat (cushions, holds in place)
- renal fascia (anchors to wall and other structors)
How much blood flows through both kidneys per minute?
12000ml (20-25% of cardiac output)
What is each little division isnide the kidney called?
what are the 2 types of nephrons?
- Cortical nephrons
- juxtamedullary nephrons
What are features of cortical nephrons?
- more numerous
- periphery of cortex
- shorter nephron loops
- exchange occurs at peritubular capillaries
what are some features of juxtamedullary nephrons
- near corticomedullary border
- long nephron loops
- vasa recta is site of exchange
What do the nephrons consist of?
- Renal corpuscle
- renal tubule
What is in the renal corpuscle?
- Glomerular capsule
what is in the glomerulus?
- capillary knot
- high pressure
What is in the glomerular capsule?
- double-walled epithelial cup
- //parietal layer-simple squamous epithelium
- //visceral layer- podocytes
What is in the renal Tubule?
- proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
- Nephron loop (with descending and ascending limbs)
- Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
What does podocytes and squamous epithelial cells of glomerulus make?
What are the 3 steps to urine formation?
what is the renal plexus?
sensory and motor neurons that enters the kidneys through the hilum
what are the layers in the urinary tract and the bladder
- muscularis - longitudinal and circular layers
What is attatches the urinary bladder to the abdominal wall at the umbilicus?
median umbilical ligament
What is a trigone?
a triangular area formed by the urethral and uretic orifices.
what are the 2 sphincters that regulate flow in the urethra?
- Internal urethral sphincter (involuntary)
- external urethral sphincter (voluntary)
where are the sensory neurons relating with micturition?
sacral region, spinal chord
Where are the ascending tracs related to the micturition process?
how long are female urethras?
how long are male urethras?
what are the 3 subdivisions of the male urethra?
- penile or spongy urethra