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What is the difference between conductive and sensorineural hearing loss?
- Conductive: pbs in the external or middle ear
- Sensorineural: inner ear
Causes and SS of sensorineural loss?
- Causes:sustained exposure to loud noise, drugs - ototoxicity, infections of the inner ear, trauma, tumors, aging ( presbycusis), congenital and hereditary disorders, acoustic neuromas, Meniere's disease, rubela?
- SS: trouble understanding speech
- noisy environment makes hearing worse
- Age of onset: middle or late adulthood
- Pb is not visible
Causes and SS of conductive hearing loss?
- Causes: obstruction of ear canal, external otitis media, perforated ear drum, otosclerosis ( fixation of the ossicles by bony overgrowth)
- noisy environment may help
- Age of onset: childhood, YA, up to 40
What are some medications that affect hearing?
Difference between otitis externa and otitis media?
- Otitis externa: ( inflammation of the ear canal)
- - tug test painful ( mvt of auricle and tragus)
- - canal is swollen, narrowed, moist, pale and tender
- Otitis media: ( inflammation of the middle ear)
- - tenderness behind the ear
- - external ear does not hurt
- - red bulging drum of a serou effusion
SS of Meniere's diseade
- Onset: sudden
- sensorineural hearing loss that improves and recurs and eventually progresses ( one or both sides)
How is auditory acuity tested?
If hearing is diminished, how do you distinguish between conductive and sensorineural hearing loss?
- Weber test ( lateralization) --> normal: sound heard equally in both ears.
- Rinne --> normal: AC>BC
- In unilateral conductive hearing loss sound is heard ( lateralized to) in the impaired ear.
- Ex: acute otitis media, perforation of the eardrum, obstruction of the ear canal by cerumen
- BC=AC or BC> AC
- In unilateral sensorineural hearing loss, sound is heard in the good earAC> BC
Which sinuses can be examinated?
maxillary and frontal
What is the difference between viral rhinitis and allergic rhenitis when it comes to the nasal mucosa?
- VR: mucosa is reddened and swollen
- AL: mucosa is pale, bluish or red
What area in the nose is a common source of epitaxis?
lower anterior portion of the septum ( where the pt can reach)
What are some common causes of septal perforation?
trauma, sg, coc or amphetamine sniffing
What are the SS of acute sinusitis?
- local tenderness on sinuses
- nasal d/c
What are polyps?
abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane