The Ear and the nose

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  1. What is the difference between conductive and sensorineural hearing loss?
    • Conductive: pbs in the external or middle ear
    • Sensorineural: inner ear
  2. Causes and SS of sensorineural loss?
    • Causes:sustained exposure to loud noise, drugs - ototoxicity, infections of the inner ear, trauma, tumors, aging ( presbycusis), congenital and hereditary disorders, acoustic neuromas, Meniere's disease, rubela?
    • SS: trouble understanding speech
    • noisy environment makes hearing worse
    • Age of onset: middle or late adulthood
    • Pb is not visible
  3. Causes and SS of conductive hearing loss?
    • Causes: obstruction of ear canal, external otitis media, perforated ear drum, otosclerosis ( fixation of the ossicles by bony overgrowth)
    • noisy environment may help
    • Age of onset: childhood, YA, up to 40
  4. What are some medications that affect hearing?
    • aminoglycosides
    • aspirin
    • NSAIDs
    • quinine
    • furosemide
  5. Difference between otitis externa and otitis media?
    • Otitis externa: ( inflammation of the ear canal)
    • - tug test painful ( mvt of auricle and tragus)
    • - canal is swollen, narrowed, moist, pale and tender

    • Otitis media: ( inflammation of the middle ear)
    • - tenderness behind the ear
    • - external ear does not hurt
    • - red bulging drum of a serou effusion
  6. SS of Meniere's diseade
    • Onset: sudden
    • tinnititus
    • vertigo
    • sensorineural hearing loss that improves and recurs and eventually progresses ( one or both sides)
  7. How is auditory acuity tested?
    Whisper test
  8. If hearing is diminished, how do you distinguish between conductive and sensorineural hearing loss?
    • Weber test ( lateralization) --> normal: sound heard equally in both ears.
    • Rinne --> normal: AC>BC

    • In unilateral conductive hearing loss sound is heard ( lateralized to) in the impaired ear
    • Ex: acute otitis media, perforation of the eardrum, obstruction of the ear canal by cerumen
    • BC=AC or BC> AC

    • In unilateral sensorineural hearing loss, sound is heard in the good ear
    • AC> BC
  9. Which sinuses can be examinated?
    maxillary and frontal
  10. What is the difference between viral rhinitis and allergic rhenitis when it comes to the nasal mucosa?
    • VR: mucosa is reddened and swollen
    • AL: mucosa is pale, bluish or red
  11. What area in the nose is a common source of epitaxis?
    lower anterior portion of the septum ( where the pt can reach)
  12. What are some common causes of septal perforation?
    trauma, sg, coc or amphetamine sniffing
  13. What are the SS of acute sinusitis?
    • local tenderness on sinuses
    • fever
    • pain
    • nasal d/c
  14. What are polyps?
    abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane
Card Set:
The Ear and the nose
2013-12-01 12:11:26
Ear- nose
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