Card Set Information
ARE Building Design and Construction Systems wood notes
: used for shelter and tools
: cut trees used for shelter (Pithouse, Longhouse, Tipi) and joined cutting / notching to interlock parts (secure with wood pins)
: Romans forge first nails
: Japanese beam and bracket system
: Water powered saw mill
: Balloon framing (Augustine Taylor)
: Arts & Crafts movement
: Glue-laminated Timber, England
: Platform framing
: Hry-Ji Temple, Nara Beam & Bracket System (beam & bracket)
: Westminster Hall, London (half-timbering)
: Norwegian Stave Churches (Half-timbering)
: St. Mary's Church, Chicago (Taylor) (balloon framing)
: Gamble House, CA (Green Brothers)(craftsman bungalow)
: Laminated arches
: Sea Ranch Condominiums (Charles Moore) (shingle style w/ angles)
: Thorncrown Chapel, Arkansas (Fay Jones) (lightweight wood and glass)
Only material that is renewable.
Not precise due to organic nature.
Specify local certified forest products
Specify standard size sheets and lengths
Integrated with rubber, plastics or adhesives
Hard fibrous substance lying beneath the bark of trees.
Wood that has been sawn into construction members.
Lumber that is 5" or larger in its least dimension.
: from evergreen trees
: from deciduous trees
70% Cellulose; 18-28% Lagnin
Most accommodating construction material
Easy to work with
Stronger in compression than tension
Differs per direction
Strength when load is applied parallel to the grain
Shear strength when load is applied perpendicular to the grain
Wood that is living and contains a large amount of water.
Lumber dried out to reach a specified moisture content for use in construction.
Stronger (as building material and for fasteners)
More resistant to warping, decay, and insects
A method of seasoning lumber which takes several months and leaves 10-20% moisture.
A method of seasoning lumber which takes a few days and leaves 10% > 0 moisture.
Framing Lumber: 0<19% seasoned
FIBER SATURATION POINT
Point at which wood shrinks, swells, and resists decay.
Effects shrinkage, distortion, and warping.
: Tangentially (direction of growth rings)
: Radially (across growth rings)
: Longitudinally (parallel to the grain)
Hardwood Cut Types
: tangent to the annual rings (0-45 deg to the wide face)
: radially to the rings (45-90 deg to the wide face)
Softwood Cut Types
: tangent to the annual rings.
: radially to the rings.
Distinct grain pattern
Uneven wear, twisting or cupping
Shrinks and swells in width (less in thickness)
Less cutting waste
Even grain pattern
Even wear with less warp
Shrinks and swells in thickness (less in width)
More cutting waste
Flaws in lumber that affect the strength, appearance, use and grading.
Defects resulting from natural causes.
Types of Natural Defects
: a branch embedment in a tree that was cut through when manufactured
: pitted area found in cedar and cypress
: opening between growth rings containing resin
: lengthwise grain separation between or through growth rings
Defects arising from seasoning or processing of lumber.
Types of Manufacturing Defects
: lengthwise grain separation caused by seasoning
: lengthwise separation of wood extending from one face to another
: lack of wood on the edge or corner
: shrinkage distortion of a plane surface (bow
, crook(, twist
Uniform standard of quality given to lumber based on appearance or strength of its end use.
Best grades have almost no imperfections.
: based on the number, size, type and location of visible defects
: lumber subjected to computation of bending, values of the modulus of elasticity (E) and allowable fiber stress (f)
Established by the National Bureau of Standards according to use, size and manufacturer.
Softwood Use Classification
: used in general construction
Factory and Shop Lumber
: used for remanufacturing into other products and based on the amount of clear wood in each piece.
Softwood Lumber Size Classifications
: 2" < wide; <2" thick;
: 2" < wide; 2-5" thick
: 5" < wide and thick
: siding, subflooring, trim
: A to D (A is of highest quality / natural finish)
: 1 to 5 (1 is fewer blemishes)
: Strength and size
: load-bearing members
: joists and planks; light framing; decking
: Strength and size
: load-bearing members
: beams and stringers; posts and timbers
Softwood Manufacture Classification
: visible saw marks
: planed smooth to uniform sizes
: dressed and then tongue-and-grooved, shiplapped, or shaped to a pattern
Based on the amount of clear, usable lumber in a piece.
: 1st; 2nd; Selects; Sound Wormy; Common #1, 2, 3A, 3B
Lumber is specified in nominal (rough) dimensions.
Lumber is measured in board feet (1"x12"x12" length)
Manufactured wood panel consisting of several alternating grain, thin wood veneer sheets (plies) that are permanently bonded together with adhesive under high pressure.
Individual panels of plywood
Usually odd number
: 3, 5, or 7
Face / Back
: Outer plies (grain parallel to long dimension)
: Center ply (solid lumber or particle board)
: Plies located between outer and center plies
Veneers are rotary cut (except when hardwood grain face is important)
5/16" to 1 1/8" thickness
Backing for finish materials
Sheathing (wall, floor, and roof)
: type of adhesive used; species of veneer face (softwood or hardwood)
: Quality of the veneers
: (2) letters (A-D); face and back
: uses grade C or better for inner plies
: uses grad D or better inner plies
: identifies wood species (1 to 5); 1 = strongest and stiffest
Identification for plywood used as sheathing or subflooring.
: X/Y (X = maximum recommended roof span in inches) (Y=maximum recommended floor span in inches)
Book Matching (edge Matching)
: panel is flipped to mirror grain
: panels laid side by side repeating grain pattern
: panels grains are purposely unmatched
Strength in both directions
Resistance to lateral loads (wind or earthquake; roof, floor, shear wall)
Resistance to shrinking and splitting
Covers large surface area
Hardwood plywood is more expensive and used decoratively.
Other Plywood Types
: covered with a resin-fiber overlay
: used for marine applications
: stained and ready to use
: grooved, roughsawn, etc.
Made from wood fibers that have been highly compressed under heat and pressure into dense, durable boards.
: Basic; Prefinished (baked enamel, plastic laminate)
: Tempered; Standard; Service Standard
: 4x8 sheets; 1/8" to 3/8" thick
: Exterior siding; soffits; interior walls; ceilings; cabinetry; pegboards; acoustical treatment
Manufactured from waste paper, wood pulp and fibers.
: 4x8 sheets; 1/2" to 1" thick
Fiberboard roof insulation and decking (2x4 sheets)
: Acoustical tile; sheathing; interior wall finish; roof insulation; laminated decking
Composed of large wood flakes bonded together with synthetic resins under pressure.
: lightweight; good insulation value; good acoustic value; damaged easily
: insulating backup material on upper walls and ceilings
Dry-formed wood particles bonded together with synthetic resin.
: core stock for plastic laminate or hardwood veneers, manufacture of furniture, countertops, wall paneling, doors
An insulating board consisting of a core of small, expanded polystyrene beads with heavy paper laminated to both sides.
: Foundation perimeter insulation material.
Layers of phenolic-resin kraft paper, patterned sheet, and melamine resin treated paper fused with intense heat and pressure and used as a finish material.
: Adhered to plywood for countertops, wall coverings, and furniture
Structural members fabricated from layers of wood that are bonded with adhesives in which all layer grains are parallel longitudinally.
: 1 1/2" (3/4" for small radius curves)
Range of depths up to 75"
Single Tapered - Straight
Double Tapered - Straight
Double Tapered - Curved
Double Tapered - Pitched
: Lowest; appearance of little concern
: Medium; appearance of important concern
: Highest; appearance is of primary concern; most expensive and arrives to site wrapped
Type of Adhesive
: Interior or exterior
Stress Grade Required
Individual laminations are joined to achieve full required member length.
A glulam joining method consisting of splices on the top and bottom face of opposing members to create one seam on each face.
A glulam joining method consisting of v-shaped cuts along the end of members allowing an interlocking joint.
Factory produced to have better quality control
More dimensionally stable
Consistent size, appearance, strength
Supports heavier loads
Material manufactured from layers of kiln-dried lumber that are bonded with adhesives.
Interior surface is exposed and can be smooth, grooved, prefinished, stained
Destructive insects that cause damage to wood by eating it from the inside in warm, humid climates.
Proper drainage to minimize moisture
Impervious concrete foundations
: Metal strips used to prevent insects from reaching the wood.
(methods effective for carpenter ants)
Marine Boring Organisms
Organisms which damage wood located in salt water.
Apply heavy treatment of creosote preservative.
Destruction of wood caused by fungi developed from mild temperatures, moisture, and air, feeding on the cell walls.
Keep wood dry
OR keep continually submerged in water to avoid air
Specify decay resistant wood (redwood)
Pressure treat with preservatives
Destruction of wood from burning (except heavy timber)
Chemical solution injections into the wood (ammonium phosphate)
Surface treatments (intumescent paint, spraying, encasing)
A treatment that is applied to wood which retards the increase of temperature and reduces the rate of flame spread.
Chemicals controlled by regulations which protect wood from hazards.
: discoloration or oily surface difficult to paint (Creosote)
: Chromated Zinc Chloride
: brushing, spraying, dipping, pressure for deeper penetration
Stressed Skin Panels
Post and Beam
Continuous wall studs from the foundation to the top plate beneath the rafter.
2 stories max in height
Single story studs with floor joists bearing on the top plate of the wall below.
Multiple stories in height
Post and Beam
Beams rest of columns to carry the floor or roof loads down to the foundation.
Skeletal frame forms modular grid
Lateral stability provided with rigid connections and enclosing exterior walls
Connections made between members to ensure a stable structure.
Mill / Shop
: consider weathering
: consider appearance
Structural joints must meet structural requirements
The more invisible the joint the more expensive
Species of wood
Characteristics of wood
Lap; shoulder; rabbet; miter; shoulder miter; quirk miter; T & G; T&G miter; butt; shiplap; spline; fillet; v-joint; batten; squared splice; splice; scarf; mortise & tenon; dado; dovetail; open joint; metal joint; metal u joing; open joint with filler
Nails (most common)
Most common method of fastening joints
Driven into wood with a hammer or mechanical gun.
: structural connections
: thinner having less holding power
: thin nails with small heads for attaching trim
Items fabricated in a mill and delivered to the job site ready for installation. (shop fabricated)
Protect with a primer / sealer before leaving shop
Handle with care on jobsite to prevent warping or opening of joints
Installation requires ventilation to avoid decay or dry rot.
Ornamental shapes and molding fabricated from the better grades of softwood, hardwood or wood composites fused together with plastic binders by means of heat and pressure.
Covers joints where two elements meet and are likely to pull away from each other.
WOOD SIDING / PANELING
Sheets made from common dimensional lumber, cut and dressed to standard sizes, and variety of shapes and species.
: made from seasoned softwood
: made from softwood or hardwood
Only better grades are used
: staining, painting or natural weathering
Siding / Paneling Types
: Channel; Board & Batt; Tongue & Groove; Shiplap
: Bevel; Rabbeted Bevel; Vee Joint T&G; Drop T&G
: thin closely spaced
: heavy members configured as post & beam
Design modules of 2 & 4ft (accommodate sheathing sizes)
: Doug Fir; Larch; Hemlock; Southern Pine
: No. 2 grades (Hem-fir; Spruce-pine-fir)
: l/240 & l/360
: #1, #2, #3 or SS