Psychology: Chapter 14

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Psychology: Chapter 14
2013-11-30 23:03:43
psych 14 tufts

psych ch 14
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  1. What four characteristics qualify something as abnormal?
    • atypical
    • disturbing
    • maladaptive
    • unjustifiable
  2. somatogenic hypothesis
    early view of mental disorders which viewed disorders as the result of specific injury or infection

    incorrect, replaced by Freud's pyschogenic hypothesis
  3. psychogenic hypothesis
    • Mental disorders are rooted in pyschological processes
    • Freud
    • replaced the somatogenic hypothesis
  4. Diathesis-stress model
    disorders are caused by an underlying vulnerabilty or predisposition, genetic or environmental, (diathesis) to a mental disorder which is then triggered by stress
  5. Five Axes of the DSM IV
    • I Clinical Syndromes
    • II Personality disorders and mental retardation
    • III General medical conditions
    • IV Psychosocial & Environmental Stressors
    • V Current level of functioning
  6. 5 changes in the DSM 5
    • axes no longer exist
    • categorical approach is replaced by dimensional approach (continuum)
    • elimination of schizophrenic spectrum disorders (subtypes of schizophrenia)
    • addition of childhood disorders such as autism and ADHD
    • takes into account cultural factors
  7. comorbidity
    • many people suffer from more than one psychological disorder
    • 13% have two
    • 14% have three or more
  8. 5 types of anxiety disorders
    • phobias
    • panic disorders
    • generalized anxiety disorder
    • obsessive compulsive disorder
    • stress disorder (PTSD)
  9. two types of phobias
    • specific: an intense fear of some object or thing
    • social: excessive fears connected with social situations or performances in front of other people
  10. panic disorder
    characterized by recurrent panic attacks
  11. generalized anxiety disorder
    anxiety disorder characterized by prolonged vague but intense fears that are not attached to any particular object or circumstance
  12. obsessive compulsive disorder
    an anxiety disorder in which a person feels driven to think disturbing thoughts (obsessions) and/or to perform senseless rituals (compulsions)
  13. Three aspects of behavioral therapies in treating anxiety disorders
    • 1. encouraging appropriate behavior
    • 2. utilizing classical conditioning (i.e. systematic desensitization, flooding, aversive conditioning)
    • 3. utilizing operant conditioning (i.e. token economies, social skills training)
  14. systematic desensitization
    patient is first taught relaxation techniques and then applies them to increasingly fear-inducing situations
  15. aversive conditioning
    aims to eliminate unwanted behaviors by associating them with discomfort and pain
  16. In the video of Max, what was Max clearly suffering from?
    major depression in remission
  17. What are the four types of mood disorders?
    • 1. Dysthymia
    • 2. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
    • 3. Unipolar depression
    • 4. Bipolar depression
  18. Major depressive disorder
    • an episode of intense sadness that may last for several months
    • symptoms: diminished interests in activities, loss of appetite, weight loss, sleep disturbance, suicidal ideation & attempt, decreased energy
  19. dsythymia
    less intense sadness that persists for a period of two years or more with little relief
  20. Treatment for seasonal affective disorder?
  21. Lifetime prevalance of unipolar depression in men and women
    • men: 7-12%
    • women: 20-25%
  22. bipolar disorder
    • characterized by swings in depression & mania
    • mania characterized by: euphoria, increased energy, poor judgment, decreased sleep, elevated self esteem
  23. prevalance of bipolar disorder
    1.6% in males and females
  24. Seligman's theory of learned helplessness
    a learned expectation that one cannot control important life outcomes, resulting in apathy & depression

    external locus of control

    social learning perspective
  25. Beck's cognitive therapy
    • treatment for depression
    • reverse negative view of oneself (internal)
    • reverse negative view of ongoing experience (stable)
    • reverse views of the future (global)
  26. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
    • Replacing maladaptive thought patterns with more realistic, positive ones
    • relaxation techniques
  27. Three possible treatments for mood disorders
    • 1. psychoanalytic therapy
    • 2. cognitive behavioral therapy
    • 3. Beck's cognitive therapy
  28. psycholanalytic therapy
    • the goal is insight
    • utilizes free association and dream analysis
    • analyzes latent (hidden subconscious meaning) and manifest (literal meaning) of dreams
    • great resistance to treatment
  29. schizophrenia
    • group of severe disorders characterized by:
    • disorganized and deluded thinking
    • disturbed perceptions
    • problems with interpersonal functioning
    • problems with motor activities
    • hallucinations and delusions
  30. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia
    negative (during other times): social withdrawal, flattened emotions,
  31. Positive symptoms in schizophrenia
    (during active phase): hallucinations, delusions, incoherence, disorganized behavior (wearing too hot clothing)
  32. Three dissociative disorders
    • dissociative amnesia: loss of memory
    • dissociative fugue: memory loss is accompanied by travel
    • dissociative identity disorder: creating 2 or more identities
  33. What are four examples of cluster B of personality disorders (dramatic, emotional or erratic behavior)?
    antisocial, histrionic, borderline, narcissistic
  34. What are four examples of cluster C of personality disorders (anxious or fearful)?
    avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive
  35. What are three examples of cluster A (odd or eccentric behavior) personality disorders?
    paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal
  36. What are the three clusters of personality disorders?
    Cluster A: Odd or eccentric behavior 

    Cluster B: Dramatic, emotional or erratic behavior 

    Cluster C: Anxious or fearful
  37. schizoid personality disorder
    socially isolated with restricted emotional expression
  38. schizotypal personality disorder (2)
    • peculiarities of thought, appearance, and behavior that are disconcerting to others
    • emotionally detached and isolated
  39. histrionic personality disorder (4)
    • seductive behavior,
    • needs immediate gratifications and constant reassurance
    • rapidly changing moods
    • shallow emotions
  40. antisocial personality disorder (4)
    • manipulative
    • lacking in guilt
    • habitually breaks social rules
    • often in trouble w. law
  41. etiology
    the factors which contribute to the development of a disorder
  42. What are internalizing disorders and who is the population who suffers most from them?
    • characterized by negative emotions
    • ex. depression, anxiety, panic
    • women suffer more
  43. What are externalizing behaviors and who suffers more from these?
    • characterized by disinhibition
    • ex. alcoholism, antisocial behavior
    • more likely to occur in women
  44. How does culture affect the manifestation of mental disorders
    Often the same disorders have different behavioral manifestations
  45. What is often the cause of dissociative disorders?
    • extreme stress
    • child abuse specifically for dissociative identity disorder
  46. Borderline personality disorder (4)
    • disturbances in identity, affect and impulse control
    • chronic anger
    • drug & alcohol abuse
    • sleep abnormalities
  47. What was Mike from the video diagnosed with?
    paranoid schizophrenia