Arch 270 Week 9

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  1. How Many bones in the skull
    • -skull=cranium+mandible
    • -28 individual bones, including 6 tiny auditory ossicles
  2. Osteobiography
    • -life story of an individual documented through skeletal and dental remains
    • -sex, age at death, stature, biological affinity(ancestry), pathology and trauma and cultural modification
  3. Sex Determination
    • -biological sex, NOT gender
    • -based on puberty(harder to tell if not through puberty)
    • -sexual dimorphism
  4. Age at Death Immature Individuals
    • -based on growth and maturation
    • -bone growth and union
    • -tooth formation and eruption
  5. Age at Death Mature Individuals
    • -based on bone degeneration
    • -modification of joint surfaces(pubic symphysis, auricular surface, sternal ribs)
    • -cranial/palatal suture closure
  6. Ancestry and Stature
    • -ancestry mostly by cranial features
    • -stature is based on bone length
  7. Trauma
    -can be based on accidental injury or interpersonal violence
  8. Cultural Modification
    • -trephination(boring a hole in a body part, usually head)
    • -cranial deformation (usually binding)
    • -dental modification
    • -can be aesthetic, punitive and/or medical
  9. Dental Calculus to Determine Diet
    • -basically more mineralization(calculus) is caused by an increase in pH in mouth from eating mostly meat
    • -conversely eating carbs(sugar metabolism) causes cavities(low calculus)
    • -high calculus levels means high protein diet, little calculus means higher carb diet
  10. Microscopic Analysis
    • -alternative to dental calculus
    • -involves analysis of debris (plant/debris) embedded within the calculus
  11. Stable Isotope Analysis
    • -alternative to dental calculus
    • -quite new
    • -N15=marine plant based diet
    • -C13=marine, freshwater, and terrestrial plant diet
    • -generally done on bone collagen samples, being tried on dental calculus
  12. When did true mammals show up?
    When did placental and insectivorous mammals show up?
    Divergence from placental insectivores to first primates?
    • -200MYA
    • -70MYA
    • -65MYA
  13. Early Primates
    • -similar to modern insectivores
    • -no exact date as no single trait is suitable to determine
    • -shift in teeth from sharp teeth with tall cusps to more rounded teeth with bulbous cusps for grinding
    • -more robust zygomatic arch with larger temporalis and masseter muscles(jaw)
    • -reduction of rostrum associated with decreasing tooth size and prehensile hands
  14. Plesiadapiforms
    • -Paleocene
    • -66.5-55.8 MYA
    • -mammalian order 
    • -proto-primate suborder
    • -NOT considered true primates
    • -small, insectivorous and quadrupedal
    • -some primate like dental modification
    • -large diastema from front and back teeth
    • -lateral eyes, no postorbital bar
  15. Carpolestes
    • -Paleocene
    • -66.5-55.8 MYA
    • -genus name
    • -north american version of plesiadapiform
    • -intermediate from proto-primate to euprimate 
    • -opposable halux with nail(claws on other digits)
    • -arboreal, frugivorous 
    • -lateral eyes, no postorbital bar
  16. Euprimates
    • -first true primates
    • -Eocene
    • -55.8-33.9MYA
    • -emergence coincided with massive global warming, with almost the entire earth a tropical area
    • -resembled prosimians in general sense
    • -prehensile hands/feet
    • -reduced diastema
    • -reduced rostrum
    • -orbital convergence with partial BSV
    • -postorbital bar to stabilize chewing
    • -two families(Adapidae, Omomyidae)
  17. Adapidae
    • -family of Euprimates
    • -larger bodied and lemur like 
    • -2133/2133 for some species
    • -likely diurnal, slow and or agile arboreal quadrupedalism 
    • -retention of pronounced snout(rostrum)
  18. Omomyidae
    • -smaller bodied, tarsier like
    • -D.F. often tarsier like 2133/1133
    • -tapered snout(reduced olfaction) 
    • -enlarged orbits suggest nocturnal 
    • -postcranial bones suggest vertical clinging and leaping
  19. 3 Models of Primate Origins
    • -arboreal hypothesis
    • -visual predation hypothesis
    • -angiosperm exploitation hypothesis
  20. Arboreal Hypothesis
    • -Smith and Jones (1912 and 1916)
    • -primate evolution linked with arboreal adaptation
    • -grasping hands and feet for arboreal life
    • -reduced function of jaws for obtaining food
    • -encephalization based on increased reliance on vision led to further jaw/facial modification
  21. Visual Predation Hypothesis
    • -Cartmill, 1972
    • -expansion of arboreal hypothesis
    • -grasping feet were to allow hands to be free for predation(insects, small animals)
    • -forward, stereoscopic vision for predation(similar to cat)
    • Cartmill's definition of primate=auditory bulla, complete postorbital bar, divergent hallux/pollex with flattened nails
  22. Angiosperm Exploitation Hypothesis
    • -Sussman, 1991
    • -primate origins coincident with radiation of angiosperms to eat
    • -less emphasis on vision, more on grasping and audition
    • -well preserved Carpolestes simpsoni(Plesiadapiform) indicates grasping evolved before BSV
Card Set
Arch 270 Week 9
Arch 270 week 9
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