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2013-12-04 17:56:51

1digestive system
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  1. digestion
    • the chemical and mechanical breakdown of large food molecules  into smaller ones
    • main purpose is to increase surface areas
  2. chemical digestion
    breaks down food into simpler chemicals
  3. mechanical digestion
    breaks down larger pieces  into smaller pieces without changing the chemical composition
  4. 5 digestive processes
    • 1. ingestion
    • 2.movement
    • 3.digestion
    • 4. absorption
    • 5.deficaiton
  5. digestive system
    Gastrointestinal tract (GI) or alimentary canal

    accessory structures= teeth ,salivary glands ,pancreas
  6. Alimentary canal (GI)
    continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity extending from the mouth to the anus
  7. mucous membrane or mucosa
    made up of epithelium connective tissue and a little bit of smooth muscle

    secretion and absorption
  8. submucosa
    connective tissue with blood and lymph vessels and nerves
  9. muscularis
    produces the movement in the tube, mouth, pharynx, and upper esophagus

    has skeletal muscle that produce voluntary swallowing

    the remainder of the tract has smooth muscle

    helps to break down mixes with secretions and propels through tract
  10. serosa
    serous membrane covering an organ visceral part of the visceral peritoneum

    secretes serous fluids helps with lubrication
  11. peritoneum
    = the largest serous membrane in the body

    but it contains large folds in between the viscera also has extensions,
  12. mesentery
    an extension of the peritoneum

    other fluids include the greater omentum and lesser omentum
  13. mouth
    oral cavity chamber between the palate and the tongue
  14. vestibule
    the space between the palate and the tongue
  15. cheeks
    form the lateral walls of the mouth

    muscles covered by skin lined by stratified squamous epithelium
  16. lips
    surround the mouth opening and contain skeletal muscle and an abundance of blood vessels
  17. palate
    roof of the mouth
  18. hard palate
    interior part formed by bone
  19. soft palate
    posterior part that forms an arch that has a cone shaped projection called the uvula
  20. tonsils
    mass of lymphatic tissues and it helps to protect against infection
  21. lingual
    at the base of the tongue
  22. palatine
    at the back of the mouth on wither side of the tongue
  23. pharyngeal tonsils
  24. tongue
    • body - skeletal muscle
    • covered with mucus membranes and connected in the midline to the floor of the mouth by a frenulum
  25. frenulum
    helps mix food with saliva and moves the food back to swallow
  26. papillae
    surface of he tongue

    tongue supported buy the hyoid bone
  27. teeth
    • 2 sets
    • 1.baby primary 20 teeth
    • 2. secondary permanent 32 teeth

    mechanically break down food different kinds of teeth for different kind of function
  28. salivary glands
    secrete saliva

    • 1.parotid
    • 2.submandibular
    • 3.sublingual
  29. serous cells
    high in enzyme content

    it is called amylase

    it will begin the break down of starches
  30. mucous cells
    secrete mucous

    acts as a lubricant and

    helps bind food
  31. pharynx
    passage way that connect the nasal and oral cavity with the larynx and esophagus
  32. esophagos
    colaspible tube that is about 25cm long it provides a passage way for food
  33. stomach
    J-shaped pouchlike organ about a liter inner lining has a thick gastric fluid (rugae)
  34. cardia
    the part around the eshophasia portion
  35. fundic
    temporaly stores food
  36. pyloric
    inferion will narrow to become the pyloric canel
  37. gastric juices
  38. hydrocloric  acid
    provides the proper "PH"
  39. pepsis
    • beings he digestion of proteins
    • function-limited absorbtions and digestion of protiens starts
  40. Chyme  
    leaves the stomach its a semi fluid paste of food particals and gastric fliuds
  41. pancrease
    both an indocrine and an exocrine gland

    exocrine- secreats pancreatic juices that will leave through the ducts and enter into the duodenumof hte small intestine

    the  juices contain enzymes capable of injecting alll classes of fluids
  42. liver
    largest internal organ

    functions- stores glycogen,iron,vit.a vit.d and -vit. b12 ,

    distroys damaged red  blood cells alters toxic substances  ex.(alcohol)

    digestive function- secretes bile (the yellowish green liquid)..contains water, bile salts, bile pigments , colesterol,and various electrolites
  43. bile salts
    the digestive function and break up fat particles into smaller particles so it can mix with water

    the bile emulsifies the fats

    secreted by the liver but is stored in the gallbladder

    hepatitis = inflamation of the liver -causes jondice
  44. gallbladdder
    regulates the release of the bile
  45. small intestine
    extends from the stomach to the large intestine

    it is about 1 inch in diameter and about 21 feet long

    • 1.duodenum-10 inches long
    • 2.jejunum-8 feet long
    • 3.ileum-12 feet long
    • dont memorize lenght

    • function-- digestin of all types of foods
    • absorbtions by the blood and  lymph of the digestive food

    • main site of the nutriant absorbtion
  46. intestinal villi
    pojection of the mucus membrane and increases surface area for absorbtion
  47. intestinal glands
    between the base of the villi secretes watery fluids and caries it into the villi
  48. goblet cells
    secretes mucus

    cells of he mucosa secrete digestive enzymes
  49. Large intestine
    daimeter =2 1/2 inches wide about 5 feet long

    • cecum=2 1/2 inches long pouched area
    •  veriform appendix is 2 1/2- 3 inches long

    and appendix is a vestigial structure that was bigger

    • function= little bisically o digestion
    • mucus is the only secretion and it protects the intestinal wall '

    aids in holding fecal material


    mainly it reabsorbs water and electrolytes from the chyme it will form and store feces
  50. colon sections
    asending colon than the transverse colon than the desending colon and then it goes to the sigmoid colon than the rectum

    • 1.asending
    • 2.transverse
    • 3.desending
    • 4.sigmoid
    • 5.rectum
  51. rectum
    8 inches the last of the track and then the anal canal and it opens the anus
  52. feces
    the material not digested or absorbed along with some water electrolites mucus and bacteria