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What is Motivation?
- -The driving force within individuals that impels them to action.
- -People can be motivated by different things to achieve the same goal.
What is an innate need?
Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives.
What are Acquired needs?
Generally psychological (or psychogenic) needs that are considered secondary needs or motives.
What are Generic Goals?
- the "general" categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs.
- - Ex// "I want to get a graduate degree"
What are product-specific goals?
- -The specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals.
- -Ex// I want to get an MBA in Marketing from Kellogg School of Management,"
What factors affect selection of goals?
- -Personal Experiences
- -Physical capacity
- -Prevailing cultural norms and values
- -Goal's accessibility in the physial and social environment.
What is an approach goal?
A positive goal toward which behavior is directed.
What is an avoidance goal?
A negative goal from which behavior is directed away.
What are Rational Motives?
Consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon. Slide 17
What are Emotional motives?
They imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria.
What are the 7 defense mechanisms for not achieving a goal?
Aggression, Rationalization, Regression, Withdrawal, Projection, Identification, Repression.
Name Maslow's hierarchy of needs starting from the bottom to the top?
Physiological, Safety, Belongingness, Ego needs, Self-actualization.
What are the Trio of needs?
- Power-Individual's desire to control environment.
- Affiliation- Need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging
- Achievement- Need for personal accomplishment, -closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs.
What is Motivational Research?
Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers' subconscious or hidden motivations. Consumers are not always aware of, or may not wish to recognize, the basic reasons underlying their actions.
What is involvement?
Perceived relevance of an object based on one's needs values and interests.
What is Personality?
The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment.
What is Freudian theory?
Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation.
What is Neo-Freudian personality theory?
Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality.
What is Trait theory?
Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits.
What are the three Freudian systems?
Id, Ego, Superego.
What is Id?
Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction.
What is Superego?
Individual's internal expression of society's moral and ethical codes of conduct.
What is Ego?
Individual's control that balances the demands of the id and superego.
What are the three personality groups of the Neo-Freudian Personality Theory?
- Karen Horney-three personality groups.
What is Innovativeness?
The degree to which consumers are receptive to new products, new services, or new practices
What is Dogmatism?
A personality trait that reflects the degree of rigidity a person displays toward the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to his or her own established beliefs.
What is Social Character?
Ranges on a continuum for inner-directedness to other-directedness.
What is Social character?
Ranges on a continuum for inner-directedness to other-directedness
What is the Need for uniqueness?
Consumers who avoid appearing to conform to expectations or standards of others.
What is Optimum stimulation level?
A personality trait that measures the level or amount of novelty or complexity that individuals seek in their personal experiences.
What is Variety-novelty seeking?
- -Measures a consumer's degree of variety seeking
- -Ex//-Exploratory Purchase Behavior
- -Use Innovativeness
- - Vicarious Exploration
What is a need for cognition?
A person's craving for enjoyment of thinking.
What is Consumer materialism?
The extent to which a person is considered "materialistic"
What is Fixated consumption behavior?
Consumers fixated on certain products or categories of products.
What is Compulsive consumption behavior?
"Addicted" or "out-of-control" consumers.
What is Consumer Ethnocentrism?
Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products.