Arch 270 Week 10

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  1. Emergence of Anthropoids
    • -likely in the Eocene (50MYA)
    • -arose from Adapidae, Omomyidae or third unknown group
    • -from north Africa and Asia
    • -small bodied, but dental traits of later anthropoids(blunted cusps, spatulate incisors, large canines)
  2. Eosimians
    • -Eocene
    • -55.8-33.9MYA
    • -date to 40-50MYA first period of anthropoid-prosimian divergence
    • -postcranial remains(tarsals) indidcate quadrupedal arboreal locomotion (monkey like)
  3. Amphipithecus
    • -Eocene(55.8-33.9MYA)
    • -40 MYA 
    • -Myanmar 
    • -larger bodied proto-anthropoid
    • -fused mandibular symphysis, deep and heavy mandible
    • -2133/2133
    • -more anthropoid than prosimian
  4. Parapithecidae
    • -Oligocene(33.9-23MYA)
    • -Egypt's Fayum region
    • -2133/2133
    • -small snout, forward orbits, forebrain expansion
    • -midline fusion of frontal bone
    • -bilophodont molars (two connected cusps)
    • -around platyrrhine/catarrhine divergence
  5. Apidium
    • -family Parapithecidae 
    • -Oligocene (33.9-23MYA)
    • -36-32MYA
    • -almost complete postorbital septum, narrow snout, forward orbits
    • -reduced olfaction
    • -small bodied, leaping locomotion
  6. Propliopithecidae
    • -Oligocene(33.9-23MYA)
    • -Catarrhine anthropoids from Egypt
    • -3 genera (Aegyptopithecus, Propliopithecus, and Moeripithecus)
    • -larger than Parapithecidae with sexual dimorphism 
    • -2123/2123
    • -sexually dimorphic canines
  7. Aegytopithecus
    • -Oligocene(33.9-23MYA)
    • -34-33MYA
    • -catarrhine
    • -large, sexually dimorphic canines 
    • -small brain, large visual, reduced olfaction areas
    • -slow moving arboreal quadruped
  8. Ceboids
    • -Oligocene (33.9-23MYA)
    • -arrived from old world to south america 30-25MYA
    • -likely rafted from old world on vegetation as a breeding population (5-15days)
    • -other theories say antarctica or down through NA (if true old world and new world exhibit convergent evolution)
  9. Cercopithecoids
    • -Miocene(23-5.3MYA)
    • -appeared early in the Miocene (19-12.5MYA) then disappeared for 3.2 MYA
    • -2 genera:
    • -Prohylobates- incipient bilophodonty
    • -Victoriapithecus- 2123/2123, bilophodont molars  
    • -resembles Aegytopithecus
    • -ischial callosities
  10. Hominoids
    • -Miocene(23-5.3MYA)
    • -2123/2123
    • -"dental apes" Y5 cusp pattern
    • -transitional from cercopithecoids and hominoids
  11. Proconsul
    • -genus of proconsulidae with 4 species from 35-175 lbs
    • -Miocene (23-5.3MYA)
    • -arboreal frugivore
    • -NOT thought to be ancestral to modern apes
    • -both ape and monkey like features
    • APE:
    • -large cranium
    • -frontal sinus
    • -sectorial premolar and upper canine diastema
    • -no tail, robust halux
    • MONKEY:
    • -fore and hind limbs same length(slow arboreal quadruped)
    • -slender tarsals
    • -narrow chest
    • -not adapted for suspensory locomotion
  12. Molecular Clock Hypothesis
    • -if mutations occur at a constant rate, mtDNA can be used to find the last common ancestor between two lineages
    • -BUT natural selection needs to be taken into account
    • -puts human-ape divergence about 5MYA (now thought to be 5-7MYA)
    • -when first came out ppl thought divergence occured 15-25MYA
  13. Sahelanthropus tchadensis
    • -found in Sahel region of Chad in 2002
    • -dated 6-7 MYA
    • -cranial fragments only
    • -hominid traits:flat face, massive brow ridges, forward foramen magnum, reduced canines
    • -ancestral traits: small brain(350CC), small posterior teeth, thin enamel
  14. Orrorin Tugensis
    • -Kenya's Tugen Hills in 2001
    • -dated to 5.8-6.1MYA
    • -13 fossils, MNI=5
    • -possible hominid
    • -hominid traits: thick enamel, long femur
    • -ancestral: small posterior teeth
    • -appears adapted to bipedalism and tree climbing NOT brachiation
  15. Ardipithecus kadabba
    • -Ethiopia 1997-2001
    • -dated 5.2-5.8MYA
    • -mostly dental and pedal fossils
    • -hominid: thick molar enamel, canines similar to later hominids
    • -pedal elements suggest bipedalism
    • -considered chronospecies with Ardipithecus ramidus (ie: led to ramidus)
  16. Ardipithecus ramidus
    • -Ethiopia 1992
    • -dated to 4.4-4.8MYA
    • -MNI=36
    • -plus one relatively complete
    • -hominid: forward foramen magnum, incisiform canine, no sectorial premolar
    • -ancestral: larger canines, smaller posterior teeth, thin molar enamel, small brain
    • -forested environment, terrestrial biped, arboreal quadruped
    • -ischial tuberosity
    • -no brachiation
  17. How many hominid species existed in Africa between 4-2MYA?
    -up to 7 living contemporaneously
  18. Australopithecines (list)
    • -anamensis, afarensis, africanus, garhi, sediba
    • -first discovered in 1925 Raymond Dart
    • -small canines without diastema
    • -forward foramen magnum
  19. Taung Baby
    • -Australopithecus africanus
    • -2-3MYA
  20. Australopithecus anamensis
    • -Kenya
    • -3.8-4.2MYA
    • -most primitive Australopithecine 
    • -52 fossils, mostly dental remains
    • -hominid: small canines, large molars, thick enamel, knee ankle bones suggest bipedalism
    • -ancestral: U shaped dental arcade, small external auditory meatus, curved phalanges and suspensory scapula
  21. Australopithecus afarensis
    • -Ethiopia's afar region initially (discovery of "Lucy" 40% complete)
    • -since found in Tanzania and Chad
    • -3.7-2.6MYA
    • -hominid: fully bipedal
    • -ancestral: small cranium(400CC), alveolar prognathism, sexually dimorphic teeth and bodies
    • -intermediate: shape of dental arcade, reduced canines and diastema, retention of some arboreal adaptations
  22. Australopithecus africanus
    • -3.0-2.2MYA
    • -Ethiopia, Tanzania, Chad
    • -ancestral: small cranium(440CC), sexually dimorphic teeth and bodies
    • -hominid: virtually identical to afarensis, but less prognathic face 
    • -derived(unique) traits: heavy mastication in jaw(large and sturdy) large molars
  23. Australopithecus garhi
    • -Ethiopia 1999
    • -2.5MYA
    • -ancestral: small cranium(450CC), very prognathic face
    • -hominid: elongated femur
    • -derived: larger teeth, sagittal crest
  24. Australopithecus sediba
    • -South Africa 2008
    • -1.95-1.78MYA
    • -2 individuals (10-12 year old male adult female)
    • -ancestral: small cranium (420CC)
    • -hominid: gracile mandible, small teeth
    • -possibly chronospecies between africanus and later hominids
  25. Laetoli Footprints
    • -Tanzania 1976
    • -3 sets of footprints in volcanic ash
    • -3.7MYA
    • -attributed to Australopithecus afarensis
    • -demonstrate full bipedalism
  26. Kenyanthropus platyops
    • -3.5-3.2MYA
    • -Kenya
    • -became new species in 2001
    • -ancestral: small brain, alveolar prognathism, small external auditory meatus
    • -derived: small molars, flat face with high cheeks
    • -apart from small brain, similar to H rudolfensis 
    • -some think it is disturbed afarensis
  27. Paranthropus
    • -also known as robust Australopithecines 
    • -derived: enormous molars, pronounced sagittal crest(for temporalis muscle), flared zygomatic bones(for masseter muscle), dish shaped faces, massive mandible with deep symphysis and broad ascending ramus
    • -postcranial is not particularly robust
  28. Paranthropus aethiopicus
    • -Ethiopia 1968(also kenya)
    • -2.8-2.2MYA
    • -hominid: very similar to afarensis in post cranial skelelton
    • -derived: specialized for heavy chewing
    • -possibly ancestral to other Paranthropus
  29. Paranthropus robustus
    • -South Africa 1939
    • -2.2-1.0MYA
    • -hominid: similar to africanus post cranially 
    • -derived: shared adaptations for heavy chewing with africanus BUT much more pronounced
  30. Paranthropus boisei
    • -Tanzania 1959 (also Kenya and Ethiopia)
    • -2.2-1.0 MYA
    • -was called Zinjanthropus boisei
    • -hominid: similar to robustus, but larger body size
    • -derived: hyper robust(even more specialized for chewing)
  31. What else was around when Homo first appeared 2.5MYA?
    • -Australopithecus garhi
    • -Australopithecus africanus 
    • -Australopithecus sediba
    • -Paranthropus aethiopicus
  32. Plio-Pleistocene African Climate
    • -3.0-2.5 MYA a shift toward aridity started (continued to 1.8-1.6MYA)
    • -changed from very wet to very dry every 20KYA
    • -climate changes seemed to significantly impacted hominid lineages
  33. Homo habilis
    • -2.5-1.5MYA
    • -first Homo
    • -1960 in Olduvai gorge(Tanzania)
    • -now found in Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Malawi and South Africa
    • -30% larger cranium that boisea (650 vs 500)
    • -possibly descended from garhi
    • -derived: smaller teeth, thinner enamel, more parabolic dental arcade, rounded cranium, less prognathic face, less chewing muscles
    • -ancestral: long arms with retention of some arboreal traits
    • -clear association with Olduwan tools
    • -meat scavenger
    • -MAY have spoke, possessed wernicke and broca
  34. Homo rudolfensis
    • -2.0-1.5MYA
    • -larger cranium than habilis (750CC)
    • -larger body, flatter facem smaller brow ridges
    • -much debate over relation to habilis and modern humans
  35. Birket Qarun Lake
    -was the major focus of al organism in the Fayum region of Africa in the Oligocene as the climate became more tropical
  36. Oligopithecids
    -earliest anthropoid primates in the Oligocene, found in the Fayum, Egypt
  37. Saadanius
    -early catarrhine Oligocene genus that later gave rise to later catarrhines
  38. Branisella
    -south American genus from the Oligocene, ancestral to platyrrhines
  39. Micropithecus
    -genus of very small Proconsulids from the miocene, found in Africa
  40. Sivapithecus
    -genus of miocene Sivapithecids proposed as ancestral to orangutans
  41. Khoratopithecus
    -genus of miocene apes from asia, likely ancestral to orangutans
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Arch 270 Week 10
2013-12-01 04:20:17
Arch 270

Arch 270 Week 10
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