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History of Metal
- BC History
- Neolithic Era: Fashioning of copper tools, utensils and ornaments
- 3000 BC: Copper plumbing in Egyptian tombs
- 3500 BC: Smelting copper with tin to make brass / bronze opened up trade
- 3rd: Romans applied coats of tin to iron and copper cookware
- AD History
- 1293: (Iron) Catalan Forge produced large quantities of wrought iron with greater speed.
- 1350: (Iron) Blast furnace development results castable pig iron.
- 1500: (Copper) Hammered sheets for roofing
- 1742: (Steel) Crucible steel rediscovered
- 1742: (Finish) Zinc coating for iron sheets (Melouin)
- 1750: (Copper) Hot / Cold rolling mills developed for manufacturing of sheet copper
- 1760: Industrial revolution made metal use more viable for structural purpose.
- 1783: (Iron) Rolling Mill (Henry Cort)
- 1784: (Iron) Dry puddling furnace developed using coal allowed iron to be hammered into flat wrought iron and sent to rolling mills for standardized shapes. (Henry Cort)
- 1800s: Aluminum produced
- 1801: (Copper) First sheet copper manufactured in US (Paul Revere)
- 1805: (Finish) Zinc electroplating (Hobson)
- 1830: (Iron) Iron-oxide lined furnace (Hall)
- 1837: (Finish) Hot-dipped galvanized (Crawford)
- 1840: (Iron) First Iron Truss
- 1848: Warren-type girder (triangle webs)
- 1849: (Finish) Galvanized steel roofing
- 1850: (Steel) Bessemer process produces abundant and inexpensive supply of steel for construction.
- 1883: (Steel) Rolling mill for steel billet
- 1886: (Alum) First method for smelting aluminum.
- 1893: (Space frame) Tetrahedral box kite (Hargrave) / (Graham Bell - 1898)
- 1896: Vierendeel Truss (rectangle webs)
- 1896: (Tensile Structure) First tensile structure built of iron
- 1904: (Steel) First wide flange (Bethlehem Steel Corp.)
- 1919: Bauhaus
- 1920: (Alum) First curtain wall
- 1927: (Finish) Electoplating, painting and mechanical finish for aluminum experimentation
- 1928: Art Deco used aluminum for decorating
- 1930: (Finish) First anodizing plant (Alcoa)
- 1945: (Space frame) Buckminster Fuller
- 1950: (Steel) Basic oxygen process
- 1964: (Tensile) Institute for Lightweight Structures at University of Stuttgart founded by Frei Otto
- 1970: Return of steel
- 1420:Florence Cathedral Dome, Italy; wrought iron rods and chain support system (Brunelleschi)
- 1777: First iron bridge, Severn River, England
- 1853: First cast iron facades, NY (Bogardus)
- 1851: Crystal Palace, prefab iron and glass (Paxton)
- 1884: Washington Monument aluminum cap
- 1885: Jenny's Home Insurance Company, Chicago; first skyscraper of cast iron / steel frame encased by masonry (Le Baron)
- 1889: Eiffel Tower, Paris; 984 ft of wrought iron
- 1896: Nizhny Novgorod Fair, iron tensile structure (Shukhov)
- 1900: Palais des Machines, Paris; curved steel arch
- 1928: Chrysler building, NY; decorative aluminum
- 1929: Empire State Building, NY; decorative aluminum
- 1950: United Nations Headquarter, NY; Aluminum glass curtain wall (Le Corbusier)
- 1951: Lake Shore Drive Apartments, Chicago; steel I-beam (Mies van der Rohe)
- 1953: Alcoa Headquarters, PA; aluminum curtain wall with steel frame (Harrison / Abramovitz)
- 1956: Price Tower, OK; Most extensive copper application (FLW)
- 1958: Seagram Building, NY; steel (Philip Johnson)
- 1958: Sindey Myer Music Bowl, Australia; tensile structure aluminum covered plywood
- 1972: Munich Olympic Stadium; tensile acrylic glass supported by steel cables 80,000 seats (Otto)
- 1967: Expo 67 Geodesic Sphere, Canada; space frame (Fuller)
- 1973: Sears Tower, Chicago; 1451 ft steel frame (SOM)
- 1975: Kemper Crosby Memorial Arena, Kansas City; Space frame support roof (Murphy)
- 1978: Gehry Home, CA; chainlink and corrugated steel (Gehry)
- 1981: Crystal Cathedral, CA; space frame (Philip Johnson)
- 1983: BC Place Stadium, Vancouver; air supported dome
- 1986: Javits Convention Center, NY; space frame (I.M. Pei)
- 1989: Louvre Pyramid, Paris; glass / steel space frame; (I.M. Pei)
- 1995: Dever international Airport; Tensile fabric
- 1997: Guggenheim, Spain; titanium panels (Gehry)
- 1999: Millenium Dome; tensile fabric and steel (Rogers)
- 2004: Tapei 101, Taiwan; 1670ft steel frame
- 2004: Padre Pio Pilgrimage Church, Italy; pre-patinated copper roof (Renzo Piano)
- 2005: M.H. De Young Museum, CA; pre-patinated copper clad
- 2010: Burj, Dubau; 2717ft steel frame
- 2013: Freedom Tower, NY; 1776ft steel frame
- Focused on making materials meet the required specified needs
- Steel Alloys: higher strength, greater plasticity, greater malleability, lower cost
- Aluminum: structural shapes and engineering methods to lower cost and increase heat resistance.
- Weathering steel: pre-rusted surfaces do not need painting (Cor-ten)
- 66% of all steel is recycled
- Copper fully recyclable (water-runoff safe)
- Light weight requires smaller foundations
- Fabrication and erection is clean process.
- Aluminum resists corrosion without added finishes.
- Aluminum process, finished product and anodizing material is certifiably "green".
- Mining and smelting disrupts and pollutes land, water and habitats.
- Waste products chemicals from process are hazardous to the environment.
- Protective coatings and fireproofing materials cause pollution.
- High costs to produce aluminum outweighs advantages
Substances characterized by their luster (sheen), opaqueness, hardness, ability to conduct heat and electricity, and their superior ability to resist deformation.
A heat treatment of extracting a metal from its ore.
Substances contained inside metal after extraction that may enhance the metal or may be removed through further refining processes.
A substance generally composed of two or more mixed metals.
- Corrosion resistance
- Methods of forming, joining, handling
- Ferrous: containing a substantial proportion of iron (stainless steel; galvanized iron)
- Non-Ferrous: all others (aluminum; copper; zinc)
- Almost all metals deteriorate
- Cause: exposure to air, water, soil or chemical agents
- The deteriorating reaction (corrosion) occurring between dissimilar metals that are in contact in the presence of moisture.
- One metal corrodes another
- Degree and speed depend on amount of moisture (dry air slows process)
Galvanic Activity Metal List
- 1. Aluminum (most easily corroded)
- 2. Zinc
- 3. Iron and Steel
- 4. Stainless Steel
- 5. Tin
- 6. Lead
- 7. Brass
- 8. Copper
- 9. Bronze
- 10. Gold (Corrodes all others)
- Metals far apart on the list should not be placed in contact with each other.
Prevention of Corrosion
- Galvanic Action: Use isolation material to separate dissimilar metals or use compatible metals
- Alloying: prevents corrosion by changing the chemical composition of the metal
- Galvanizing: prevents corrosion by applying it to metal as a surface coating
- Anodizing: prevents corrosion by applying it to metal as a surface coating
The process by which extracted metal is transformed into a useful product that has a finish shape.
A forming method by which products are obtained by pouring molten metal into a mold of the required shape and allowing it to cool
- A forming method by which products are obtained by forcibly shaping solid metal to a required form by a variety of methods.
- Methods: hot or cold rolling; forging; pressing; drawing; extruding
Metal Mechanical Properties
- Determines the method of forming
- Malleability: ease of hammering
- Ductility: ease of drawing
- Toughness: resistance to fracture
- Hardness: resistance to abrasion
- Principle constituent of all ferrous metals
- 2nd most abundant metal
- 4th most abundant element
- Pure Iron: tough, malleable, easily magnetized, quick to oxidize
- Almost pure iron with very low carbon content
- Properties: Soft; strong; ductile; easily worked; relatively resistant to corrosion
- Forming: forged, bent, rolled
- Use: ornamental ironwork; grilles; plumbing pipes; outdoor furniture (historic use as tension members)
- Shapes: pipe; sheet; bar; bent shapes
- Produced by re-smelting pig iron with steel scrap.
- High carbon content (2% <)
- Types: white cast iron; gray cast iron; malleable iron; etc.
- Strength: high compressive; low tensile
- Forming: cast
- Properties: rough, uneven, resistance to corrosion
Steel Making Methods
- Open Hearth Process
- Basic Oxygen Process
- Electric Furnace Process
- All involve the removal of unwanted impurities and excess carbon from pig iron and the addition of other elements to produce the desired composition.
- An alloy of iron that contains <2% carbon.
- Properties: hard; strong; tough; malleable
- Forming: rolled; drawn; bent; cast; joined (rivets, bolts, welds)
- Use: structural framing; concrete reinforcing bars; lathing; conduit; pipes; fixtures; ornamental; connectors
- Benefits: great strength at relatively low cost
- Steel containing about 1/4 of 1% carbon plus traces of various impurities.
- Types: high strength steel
- Use: structural purposes
- Steel containing other elements that are added to provide special properties.
- (Stainless steel contains chromium and nickel to create a strong, hard and corrosion-resistant metal)
- Steel containing up to 1/2 of a 1% copper, which develops a tightly-adherent oxide coating when exposed to the weather
- No finish required
Steel that is reheated and cooled slowly (annealed) for improved workability.
Steel with a hard, high carbon surface produced by a special process.
- Almost all non-ferrous metals resist corrosion.
- Excellent workability
- High initial cost
- Almost all are alloys
- Pure: soft
- Alloy: hard and strong
- Properties: light weight (1/3 of steel); good thermal and electrical conductivity; resistance to corrosion (except galvanic action and oxidation); high reflectivity
- Forming: casting; extrusions; sheets; strips; bars; rods;
- Joining: riveting; welding; soldering; adhesive bonding
- Use: light weight framing; railings and grilles; siding; curtain walls; windows; doors; flashing; insulation; roofing; screening; hardware
- Finishes: etching; embossing; anodizing; plating; baked enamel; painting
- Benefits: reflectivity provides a barrier to radiant heat transmission
- Properties: malleable; ductile; high mechanical strength; resistant to corrosive agents (sea water); high electrical and thermal conductivity
- Use: electrical work; water distribution lines; roofing; flashing; mesh screening
- Finish: natural green patina when exposed to elements making finishing unneccessary
- Common alloy of copper and zinc
- Properties: easily worked; corrosion resistant
- Use: precise casting; finish hardware; components and fittings for plumbing, heating and air-conditioning
- Alloys of copper and tin with small amounts of other metals
- Properties: easily worked; corrosion resistant
- Use: precise castings; finish hardware; ceilings; components and fittings
- Heavy, soft, toxic metal of low strength
- Properties: easily worked; corrosion-resistant; impenetrable to radiation
- Use: rough hardware; roofing; flashing vibration control under foundations and machinery; acid and radiation resistant construction
- Low strength corrosion resistant metal
- Use: roof covering; flashing; protective coatings on steel (galvanizing)
- A nickel-copper alloy that is strong.
- Properties: bright; ductile; corrosion resistant
- Use: roofing; flashing; counter tops; sinks; commercial kitchen equipment
- Applied to metals for appearance or protection from corrosion.
- Mechanical finish: texture effects of grinding; polishing; sandblasting; hammering
- Applied coating: electroplating; enameling; spraying; dipping; sherardizing (zinc dust)
- Ferrous metals require protective coatings to prevent corrosion
- Non-ferrous metals weather themselves along with weathering steel and do not need finished
A metal finish applied to aluminum by means of inserting the material into an electrolyte causing a current and a coating with hues.
- A coating of zinc is applied by immersing the steel in a bath of molten zinc. (hot-dipped)
- Thickness: oz per sq. ft. of sheet
- Galvanic action corrodes the zinc and protects the steel as long as zinc remains.
- Most popular method for iron / steel protection
- Low cost
- Use: roofing; siding; decking; flashing; cladding; doors
- Additional finish: phosphatizing solution; Portland-cement based primer
Metal Construction Use Classification
- Structural: structural steel; reinforcing bars and mesh; wire rope
- Hollow metalwork: doors; bucks; partitions; panels; windows; mullions; curtain walls; panel systems
- Miscellaneous metalwork: stairs; railings; fencing; grating; rough hardware; ladders
- Ornamental metalwork: plaques; letters; finish hardware; railings; screens; grilles; expansion joint covers
- Flashing: bas and cap; gutters; spandrel; through-wall; copings; shields
- Miscellaneous: rough hardware; nuts; bolts; rivets; screws; nails; washers; inserts; hangers; anchors; wire
Structural Steel Construction
- Consists of the fabrication and erection of hot-rolled members manufactured from medium carbon steel (1/4 of 1% carbon).
- Shapes: wide flange (W); amercian standard beams (S); American standard channels (C); angles (L); tees (WT); tubing; bars; plates
- Built-up: plate girder; built-up columns; truss chords; rigid bent
- Use: skeletal frame
- Fabrication: performed in shop for quality and cost control; minimum on site connections
- Protection: fire and corrosion
TENSILE / FABRIC STRUCTURES
- Uses a guy rope, held in tension by an upright support and grounded with anchors to support fabric and create a space underneath.
- No compression or bending at any point in system.
- Lightweight; low-cost for large open areas (arenas)
- Fabric allow opacity; water resistance; control of heating and cooling; interior acoustics
Fabric Structure Groups
- Tensile: able to resist wind lift and other stresses due to their curvature and pre-stressing fabric and steel cables. (masts and cables OR frames and arches)
- Pneumatic: use air pressure to create rigidity in the fabric structure and resist exterior forces such as wind or snow. (sport facility use; airlocks at entry way to control pressure; anchored to the ground or foundation)
- Air-inflated structures: utilize pressurized are between two layers of fabric (allow greater thermal and acoustic control
SPACE FRAMES / DOMES
Frame formed of small light steel members that together can span great distances with minimum number of supports.
LIGHTWEIGHT METAL FRAMING
- (light gauge)
- Cold formed sheet steel formed to a specific shape.
- Short spans 32ft max
- Light loads
- Easy handling and fast erection
- More costly than wood studs
OPEN WEB JOISTS
- (Bar joists)
- Shop-fabricated, standardized lightweight trusses made from hot-rolled or cold-rolled steel sections.
- Specification: span; depth; load carrying capacity
- Options: camber; wood nailer; top chord conduit raceway
- Advantage: allows mechanical systems to run through
- Manufactured from sheet steel in a corrugated, ribbed or cellular form.
- Size: long narrow sections with 6" c/c ribs and 1 1/2" < deck depth
- Edges overlap or interlock
- Finish: plain; galvanized
- Cellular: provides electrical raceway
- Composite metal decking: deformed pattern ribs that bond better with concrete
MISCELLANEOUS / ORNAMENTAL METAL
- Miscellaneous: Ferrous metals are used for stairs; shop drawings are usually furnished to ensure size, details, and anchorage methods are correct
- Ornamental: Non-ferrous metals and stainless steel; fabricated from rolled, cast, cold-formed shapes.