Consists of the fabrication and erection of hot-rolled members manufactured from medium carbon steel (1/4 of 1% carbon).
Shapes: wide flange (W); amercian standard beams (S); American standard channels (C); angles (L); tees (WT); tubing; bars; plates
Built-up: plate girder; built-up columns; truss chords; rigid bent
Use: skeletal frame
Fabrication: performed in shop for quality and cost control; minimum on site connections
Protection: fire and corrosion
TENSILE / FABRIC STRUCTURES
Uses a guy rope, held in tension by an upright support and grounded with anchors to support fabric and create a space underneath.
No compression or bending at any point in system.
Lightweight; low-cost for large open areas (arenas)
Fabric allow opacity; water resistance; control of heating and cooling; interior acoustics
Fabric Structure Groups
Tensile: able to resist wind lift and other stresses due to their curvature and pre-stressing fabric and steel cables. (masts and cables OR frames and arches)
Pneumatic: use air pressure to create rigidity in the fabric structure and resist exterior forces such as wind or snow. (sport facility use; airlocks at entry way to control pressure; anchored to the ground or foundation)
Air-inflated structures: utilize pressurized are between two layers of fabric (allow greater thermal and acoustic control
SPACE FRAMES / DOMES
Frame formed of small light steel members that together can span great distances with minimum number of supports.
LIGHTWEIGHT METAL FRAMING
Cold formed sheet steel formed to a specific shape.
Short spans 32ft max
Easy handling and fast erection
More costly than wood studs
OPEN WEB JOISTS
Shop-fabricated, standardized lightweight trusses made from hot-rolled or cold-rolled steel sections.