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  1. History of Metal
    • BC History
    • Neolithic Era: Fashioning of copper tools, utensils and ornaments
    • 3000 BC: Copper plumbing in Egyptian tombs
    • 3500 BC: Smelting copper with tin to make brass / bronze opened up trade
    • 3rd: Romans applied coats of tin to iron and copper cookware

    • AD History
    • 1293: (Iron) Catalan Forge produced large quantities of wrought iron with greater speed.
    • 1350: (Iron) Blast furnace development results castable pig iron.
    • 1500: (Copper) Hammered sheets for roofing
    • 1742: (Steel) Crucible steel rediscovered
    • 1742: (Finish) Zinc coating for iron sheets (Melouin)
    • 1750: (Copper) Hot / Cold rolling mills developed for manufacturing of sheet copper
    • 1760: Industrial revolution made metal use more viable for structural purpose.
    • 1783: (Iron) Rolling Mill (Henry Cort)
    • 1784: (Iron) Dry puddling furnace developed using coal allowed iron to be hammered into flat wrought iron and sent to rolling mills for standardized shapes. (Henry Cort)
    • 1800s: Aluminum produced
    • 1801: (Copper) First sheet copper manufactured in US (Paul Revere)
    • 1805: (Finish) Zinc electroplating (Hobson)
    • 1830: (Iron) Iron-oxide lined furnace (Hall)
    • 1837: (Finish) Hot-dipped galvanized (Crawford)
    • 1840: (Iron) First Iron Truss
    • 1848: Warren-type girder (triangle webs)
    • 1849: (Finish) Galvanized steel roofing
    • 1850: (Steel) Bessemer process produces abundant and inexpensive supply of steel for construction.
    • 1883: (Steel) Rolling mill for steel billet
    • 1886: (Alum) First method for smelting aluminum.
    • 1893: (Space frame) Tetrahedral box kite (Hargrave) / (Graham Bell - 1898)
    • 1896: Vierendeel Truss (rectangle webs)
    • 1896: (Tensile Structure) First tensile structure built of iron
    • 1904: (Steel) First wide flange (Bethlehem Steel Corp.)
    • 1919: Bauhaus
    • 1920: (Alum) First curtain wall
    • 1927: (Finish) Electoplating, painting and mechanical finish for aluminum experimentation
    • 1928: Art Deco used aluminum for decorating
    • 1930: (Finish) First anodizing plant (Alcoa)
    • 1945: (Space frame) Buckminster Fuller
    • 1950: (Steel) Basic oxygen process
    • 1964: (Tensile) Institute for Lightweight Structures at University of Stuttgart founded by Frei Otto
    • 1970: Return of steel

    • Buildings
    • 1420:Florence Cathedral Dome, Italy; wrought iron rods and chain support system (Brunelleschi)
    • 1777: First iron bridge, Severn River, England
    • 1853: First cast iron facades, NY (Bogardus)
    • 1851: Crystal Palace, prefab iron and glass (Paxton)
    • 1884: Washington Monument aluminum cap
    • 1885: Jenny's Home Insurance Company, Chicago; first skyscraper of cast iron / steel frame encased by masonry (Le Baron)
    • 1889: Eiffel Tower, Paris; 984 ft of wrought iron
    • 1896: Nizhny Novgorod Fair, iron tensile structure (Shukhov)
    • 1900: Palais des Machines, Paris; curved steel arch
    • 1928: Chrysler building, NY; decorative aluminum
    • 1929: Empire State Building, NY; decorative aluminum
    • 1950: United Nations Headquarter, NY; Aluminum glass curtain wall (Le Corbusier)
    • 1951: Lake Shore Drive Apartments, Chicago; steel I-beam (Mies van der Rohe)
    • 1953: Alcoa Headquarters, PA; aluminum curtain wall with steel frame (Harrison / Abramovitz)
    • 1956: Price Tower, OK; Most extensive copper application (FLW)
    • 1958: Seagram Building, NY; steel (Philip Johnson)
    • 1958: Sindey Myer Music Bowl, Australia; tensile structure aluminum covered plywood
    • 1972: Munich Olympic Stadium; tensile acrylic glass supported by steel cables 80,000 seats (Otto)
    • 1967: Expo 67 Geodesic Sphere, Canada; space frame (Fuller)
    • 1973: Sears Tower, Chicago; 1451 ft steel frame (SOM)
    • 1975: Kemper Crosby Memorial Arena, Kansas City; Space frame support roof (Murphy)
    • 1978: Gehry Home, CA; chainlink and corrugated steel (Gehry)
    • 1981: Crystal Cathedral, CA; space frame (Philip Johnson)
    • 1983: BC Place Stadium, Vancouver; air supported dome
    • 1986: Javits Convention Center, NY; space frame (I.M. Pei)
    • 1989: Louvre Pyramid, Paris; glass / steel space frame; (I.M. Pei)
    • 1995: Dever international Airport; Tensile fabric
    • 1997: Guggenheim, Spain; titanium panels (Gehry)
    • 1999: Millenium Dome; tensile fabric and steel (Rogers)
    • 2004: Tapei 101, Taiwan; 1670ft steel frame
    • 2004: Padre Pio Pilgrimage Church, Italy; pre-patinated copper roof (Renzo Piano)
    • 2005: M.H. De Young Museum, CA; pre-patinated copper clad
    • 2010: Burj, Dubau; 2717ft steel frame
    • 2013: Freedom Tower, NY; 1776ft steel frame
  2. Recent Trends
    • Focused on making materials meet the required specified needs
    • Steel Alloys: higher strength, greater plasticity, greater malleability, lower cost
    • Aluminum: structural shapes and engineering methods to lower cost and increase heat resistance.
  3. Sustainability
    • Advantages:
    • Weathering steel: pre-rusted surfaces do not need painting (Cor-ten)
    • 66% of all steel is recycled
    • Copper fully recyclable (water-runoff safe)
    • Light weight requires smaller foundations
    • Fabrication and erection is clean process.
    • Aluminum resists corrosion without added finishes.
    • Aluminum process, finished product and anodizing material is certifiably "green".

    • Negatives:
    • Mining and smelting disrupts and pollutes land, water and habitats.
    • Waste products chemicals from process are hazardous to the environment.
    • Protective coatings and fireproofing materials cause pollution.
    • High costs to produce aluminum outweighs advantages
  4. METAL
    Substances characterized by their luster (sheen), opaqueness, hardness, ability to conduct heat and electricity, and their superior ability to resist deformation.
    A heat treatment of extracting a metal from its ore.
    Substances contained inside metal after extraction that may enhance the metal or may be removed through further refining processes.
  7. ALLOY
    A substance generally composed of two or more mixed metals.
  8. Metal Characteristics
    • Strength
    • Toughness
    • Corrosion resistance
    • Appearance
    • Cost
    • Methods of forming, joining, handling
  9. Metal Classification
    • Ferrous: containing a substantial proportion of iron (stainless steel; galvanized iron)
    • Non-Ferrous: all others (aluminum; copper; zinc)
  10. Metal Deterioration
    • Almost all metals deteriorate
    • Cause: exposure to air, water, soil or chemical agents
    • (electrolysis)
    • The deteriorating reaction (corrosion) occurring between dissimilar metals that are in contact in the presence of moisture.
    • One metal corrodes another
    • Degree and speed depend on amount of moisture (dry air slows process)
  12. Galvanic Activity Metal List
    • 1. Aluminum (most easily corroded)
    • 2. Zinc
    • 3. Iron and Steel
    • 4. Stainless Steel
    • 5. Tin
    • 6. Lead
    • 7. Brass
    • 8. Copper
    • 9. Bronze
    • 10. Gold (Corrodes all others)
    • Metals far apart on the list should not be placed in contact with each other.
  13. Prevention of Corrosion
    • Galvanic Action: Use isolation material to separate dissimilar metals or use compatible metals
    • Alloying: prevents corrosion by changing the chemical composition of the metal
    • Galvanizing: prevents corrosion by applying it to metal as a surface coating
    • Anodizing: prevents corrosion by applying it to metal as a surface coating
    The process by which extracted metal is transformed into a useful product that has a finish shape.
  15. Cast
    A forming method by which products are obtained by pouring molten metal into a mold of the required shape and allowing it to cool
  16. Wrought
    • A forming method by which products are obtained by forcibly shaping solid metal to a required form by a variety of methods.
    • Methods: hot or cold rolling; forging; pressing; drawing; extruding
  17. Metal Mechanical Properties
    • Determines the method of forming
    • Malleability: ease of hammering
    • Ductility: ease of drawing
    • Toughness: resistance to fracture
    • Hardness: resistance to abrasion
  18. IRON
    • Principle constituent of all ferrous metals
    • 2nd most abundant metal
    • 4th most abundant element
    • Pure Iron: tough, malleable, easily magnetized, quick to oxidize
  19. Wrought Iron
    • Almost pure iron with very low carbon content
    • Properties: Soft; strong; ductile; easily worked; relatively resistant to corrosion
    • Forming: forged, bent, rolled
    • Use: ornamental ironwork; grilles; plumbing pipes; outdoor furniture (historic use as tension members)
    • Shapes: pipe; sheet; bar; bent shapes
  20. Cast Iron
    • Produced by re-smelting pig iron with steel scrap.
    • High carbon content (2% <)
    • Types: white cast iron; gray cast iron; malleable iron; etc.
    • Strength: high compressive; low tensile
    • Forming: cast
    • Properties: rough, uneven, resistance to corrosion
  21. Steel Making Methods
    • Open Hearth Process
    • Basic Oxygen Process
    • Electric Furnace Process
    • All involve the removal of unwanted impurities and excess carbon from pig iron and the addition of other elements to produce the desired composition.
  22. STEEL
    • An alloy of iron that contains <2% carbon.
    • Properties: hard; strong; tough; malleable
    • Forming: rolled; drawn; bent; cast; joined (rivets, bolts, welds)
    • Use: structural framing; concrete reinforcing bars; lathing; conduit; pipes; fixtures; ornamental; connectors
    • Benefits: great strength at relatively low cost
  23. Structural Steel
    • Steel containing about 1/4 of 1% carbon plus traces of various impurities.
    • Types: high strength steel
    • Use: structural purposes
  24. Alloy Steel
    • Steel containing other elements that are added to provide special properties.
    • (Stainless steel contains chromium and nickel to create a strong, hard and corrosion-resistant metal)
  25. Weathering Steel
    • Steel containing up to 1/2 of a 1% copper, which develops a tightly-adherent oxide coating when exposed to the weather
    • No finish required
    • (Cor-ten)
  26. Heat-treated Steel
    Steel that is reheated and cooled slowly (annealed) for improved workability.
  27. Case-hardened Steel
    Steel with a hard, high carbon surface produced by a special process.
    • Almost all non-ferrous metals resist corrosion.
    • Excellent workability
    • High initial cost
    • Almost all are alloys
  29. Aluminum
    • Pure: soft
    • Alloy: hard and strong
    • Properties: light weight (1/3 of steel); good thermal and electrical conductivity; resistance to corrosion (except galvanic action and oxidation); high reflectivity
    • Forming: casting; extrusions; sheets; strips; bars; rods;
    • Joining: riveting; welding; soldering; adhesive bonding
    • Use: light weight framing; railings and grilles; siding; curtain walls; windows; doors; flashing; insulation; roofing; screening; hardware
    • Finishes: etching; embossing; anodizing; plating; baked enamel; painting
    • Benefits: reflectivity provides a barrier to radiant heat transmission
  30. Copper
    • Properties: malleable; ductile; high mechanical strength; resistant to corrosive agents (sea water); high electrical and thermal conductivity
    • Use: electrical work; water distribution lines; roofing; flashing; mesh screening
    • Finish: natural green patina when exposed to elements making finishing unneccessary
  31. Brass
    • Common alloy of copper and zinc
    • Properties: easily worked; corrosion resistant
    • Use: precise casting; finish hardware; components and fittings for plumbing, heating and air-conditioning
  32. Bronze
    • Alloys of copper and tin with small amounts of other metals
    • Properties: easily worked; corrosion resistant
    • Use: precise castings; finish hardware; ceilings; components and fittings
  33. Lead
    • Heavy, soft, toxic metal of low strength
    • Properties: easily worked; corrosion-resistant; impenetrable to radiation
    • Use: rough hardware; roofing; flashing vibration control under foundations and machinery; acid and radiation resistant construction
  34. Zinc
    • Low strength corrosion resistant metal
    • Use: roof covering; flashing; protective coatings on steel (galvanizing)
  35. Monel
    • A nickel-copper alloy that is strong.
    • Properties: bright; ductile; corrosion resistant
    • Use: roofing; flashing; counter tops; sinks; commercial kitchen equipment
    • Applied to metals for appearance or protection from corrosion.
    • Mechanical finish: texture effects of grinding; polishing; sandblasting; hammering
    • Applied coating: electroplating; enameling; spraying; dipping; sherardizing (zinc dust)
    • Ferrous metals require protective coatings to prevent corrosion
    • Non-ferrous metals weather themselves along with weathering steel and do not need finished
  37. Anodizing
    A metal finish applied to aluminum by means of inserting the material into an electrolyte causing a current and a coating with hues.
  38. Galvanizing
    • A coating of zinc is applied by immersing the steel in a bath of molten zinc. (hot-dipped)
    • Thickness: oz per sq. ft. of sheet
    • Galvanic action corrodes the zinc and protects the steel as long as zinc remains.
    • Most popular method for iron / steel protection
    • Low cost
    • Use: roofing; siding; decking; flashing; cladding; doors
    • Additional finish: phosphatizing solution; Portland-cement based primer
  39. Metal Construction Use Classification
    • Structural: structural steel; reinforcing bars and mesh; wire rope
    • Hollow metalwork: doors; bucks; partitions; panels; windows; mullions; curtain walls; panel systems
    • Miscellaneous metalwork: stairs; railings; fencing; grating; rough hardware; ladders
    • Ornamental metalwork: plaques; letters; finish hardware; railings; screens; grilles; expansion joint covers
    • Flashing: bas and cap; gutters; spandrel; through-wall; copings; shields
    • Miscellaneous: rough hardware; nuts; bolts; rivets; screws; nails; washers; inserts; hangers; anchors; wire
  40. Structural Steel Construction
    • Consists of the fabrication and erection of hot-rolled members manufactured from medium carbon steel (1/4 of 1% carbon).
    • Shapes: wide flange (W); amercian standard beams (S); American standard channels (C); angles (L); tees (WT); tubing; bars; plates
    • Built-up: plate girder; built-up columns; truss chords; rigid bent
    • Use: skeletal frame
    • Fabrication: performed in shop for quality and cost control; minimum on site connections
    • Protection: fire and corrosion
    • Uses a guy rope, held in tension by an upright support and grounded with anchors to support fabric and create a space underneath.
    • No compression or bending at any point in system.
    • Lightweight; low-cost for large open areas (arenas)
    • Fabric allow opacity; water resistance; control of heating and cooling; interior acoustics
  42. Fabric Structure Groups
    • Tensile: able to resist wind lift and other stresses due to their curvature and pre-stressing fabric and steel cables. (masts and cables OR frames and arches)
    • Pneumatic: use air pressure to create rigidity in the fabric structure and resist exterior forces such as wind or snow. (sport facility use; airlocks at entry way to control pressure; anchored to the ground or foundation)
    • Air-inflated structures: utilize pressurized are between two layers of fabric (allow greater thermal and acoustic control
    Frame formed of small light steel members that together can span great distances with minimum number of supports.
    • (light gauge)
    • Cold formed sheet steel formed to a specific shape.
    • Short spans 32ft max
    • Light loads
    • Incombustible
    • Easy handling and fast erection
    • More costly than wood studs
    • (Bar joists)
    • Shop-fabricated, standardized lightweight trusses made from hot-rolled or cold-rolled steel sections.
    • Specification: span; depth; load carrying capacity
    • Options: camber; wood nailer; top chord conduit raceway
    • Advantage: allows mechanical systems to run through
    • Manufactured from sheet steel in a corrugated, ribbed or cellular form.
    • Size: long narrow sections with 6" c/c ribs and 1 1/2" < deck depth
    • Edges overlap or interlock
    • Finish: plain; galvanized
    • Cellular: provides electrical raceway
    • Composite metal decking: deformed pattern ribs that bond better with concrete
    • Miscellaneous: Ferrous metals are used for stairs; shop drawings are usually furnished to ensure size, details, and anchorage methods are correct
    • Ornamental: Non-ferrous metals and stainless steel; fabricated from rolled, cast, cold-formed shapes.
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2013-12-01 14:50:45

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