Cancer Treatment

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Cancer Treatment
2013-12-01 00:41:48
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  1. Barriers to successful treatment
    • Toxicity to normal cells
    • Low host defense
  2. Barriers to successful tx
    Solid tumors respond poorly - tumors can spread or aggravation can encourage growth

    Drug resistance - random DNA mutation, P-gycoprotein can pump out drugs
  3. Strategies for successful treatment
    Intermittent therapy - taking breaks, normal cells heal faster

    Combination therapy
  4. Cancer Treatment Toxicities
    Bone marrow suppression

    GI tract
  5. If a pt is experiencing CIN/V, give them what?
  6. Other toxicites from cancer treatment
    • Alopecia
    • Hyperuricemia
  7. Classes of cancer drugs
    • Cytotoxic
    • Hormonal
    • Targeted drugs
  8. Action of Alkylating agents/Platinum compounds
    Forms abnormal cross links between DNA strands

    Drug resistance is common
  9. Anti-metabolite action
    Disrupt metabolic processes (imposter)
  10. What are three classes of anti-metabolites?
    • Folic acid analogue
    • Pyrimidine analogue
    • Purine analogue
  11. Leucovorin rescue
    Methotrexate inhibits folic acid metabolism

    Leucovorin allows for normal cells to get folic acid, but not the cancer cells

    Timing is important
  12. Anti-tumor antibiotics
    Used only to treat cancer

    Administerd IV - cause GI toxicity

    Cause bone marrow suppression
  13. Anti-tumor antibiotic effect on the heart
    Cardiotoxic - can cause a delayed MI
  14. Mitotic inhibitors side effects
    Peripheral neuropathy
  15. Topoisomerase Inhibitors
    Disrupt cell division in the S process
  16. Drugs for tx of prostate cancer
    • Leuprolide (Lupron) - GnRH agonist
    • Flutamide (Eulixen) - Androgen Receptor Blocker
  17. Lupron action
    Increases release of GnRH in order to down regulate the number of testes receptors
  18. Androgen receptor blocker
    Flutamide (Eulixen)
  19. Flutamide (Eulixen) action
    Blocks receptors depriving the cells of all androgen needed for growth
  20. SERMs
    Block estrogen receptors, which the tumor needs to grow in breast cancer
  21. Adverse effects of SERMs
    • Thromboembolism
    • Endometriosis
  22. SERM drugs
    • Tamoxifen (Nolvodex)
    • Raloxifine (Evista)
  23. Aromatase inhibitors are SERMs that will block _________ estrogen, but not ___________
    breast tumor

  24. Aromatase inhibitors are used for what?
    post-menopausal breast cancer
  25. Adverse effect of Aromatase inhibitors
    Estrogen depletion increases the risk of osteoporosis
  26. Epogen or Procrit are both hematopoetic growth factor drugs used for what?
    Correcting anemia when H/H has fallen below 35%
  27. Why is Fe, Folic acid and B12 given with Epogen/Procrit?
    Because these are things that are needed to make blood
  28. What hematopoetic drug is given to correct WBC count?
  29. Thrombopoetic growth factor
    • For people who are anemic from chemo
    • For platelet count