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The physical environment of the secondary enclosure. i.e. a room, barn or outdoor habitat
The immediate physical environment surrounding the animal. i.e. cage, pen stall
What is the difference between centralized vs decentralized?
- Centralized-support, care and use areas are adjacent to animal housing. This method is cheaper, has more efficient flow, there is less duplication, less transport and has greater security and bio-security.
- Decentralized animal housing and use is not sole use of space or physically separated from support areas.
A reversible state characterized by a loss of feeling or sensation.
What are 3 types of anesthesia?
- General - absences of pain sensation over entire body
- Local - loss of feeling or sensation in one part of the body
- Regional - loss of sensation in an anatomical area supplied by a particular nerve.
Decreased perception of pain without the loss of consciousness
- State of calmness without loss of consciousness
- localized sensation of discomfort resulting from the stimulation of specialized nerve endings.
What are 7 criteria to review when selecting an anesthetic method?
- Previous drug administration
- Type of procedure to be done
- Objectives of the research protocol
What are the pre-operative care steps for anesthetic management?
- Acclimate the animal
- Clinical exam and blood work
Parasympatholytics as pre-anes meds
List 2 agents
List 2 actions
When should it be administered?
- Atropine sulfate & Glycopyrolate
- Reduces sections & reduces intestinal motility
- 30-45 mins prior to anesthesia
Tranquilizers & sedatives as pre-anes meds
List 3 Agents
List 2 benefits
- Acepromazine, Valium & Xylazine
- Minimizes stress associated with being restrained for anesthesia
- Reduces the amount of general anesthetic agent required.
Local and regional anesthetic agents
List 3 topical agents
List 2 injectible agents
List 2 methods of administration
- Cetacaine, proparacaine & Lidocaine
- Lidocaine & Bupivicaine
- Regional - infiltration around nerve or segment of spinal cord supplying sensation to the area
- Local - infiltration at the site
List 3 injection methods for general anesthetics
List 2 inhalation methods
- IV, IP & IM
- Open drop & Calibrated vaporizer
Which injectible agent provides poor muscle relaxation and mild analgesia at low levels. It is usually combined with other agents to enhance its effects. It causes increased blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rates.
Which injectible agent is a CNS depressant with minimal muscle relaxation and analgesia at low doses. It can cause decrease in heart and respiratory rates.
Which inhalant anesthetic is a volatile liquid, provides quick induction and recovery, mild respiratory depression. It is not a good muscle relaxant and is a poor analgesia at sedative levels
Which inhalant anesthetic is a gas at room temperature, is not capable of anesthesia by itself but can be given with other anesthetics,
has rapid effect and recovery with minimal CV effects. It is good for muscle relaxation and must be used in combination with oxygen.
When monitoring and providing support for anesthesia you should look at
- Jaw tone
- Heart rate
What are 5 signs of acute pain?
- Increased heart rate
- Abnormal breathing
- Muscle Splinting
- Facial grimace
What are 7 signs of chronic pain
- Acute signs AND ...
- Reluctance to be handled
- Not eating or drinking - loss of weight
- Glazed eyes
- Hunched up
- Grating of teeth
What are 5 Non-drug methods of minimizing pain?
- Warm environment
What are 2 drug methods of minimizing pain?
- Local - lidocaine, bupivicaine
- Regional - lidocaine, bupivicaine
What is the agent of choice for post-operative pain?
What is the difference between Major and Minor survival surgery?
- Major survival surgery penetrates or exposes a body cavity or produces substantial impairment of physical or physiologic function.
- Minor survival surgery does not expose a body cavity and causes little to no physical impairment.
What is the difference between survival and non survival surgery?
Survival surgery the animals is expected to recover. Non survival surgery the animal is euthanize once the procedure is complete.
What is the main difference between rodent surgical guidelines and non-rodent surgical guidelines?
In non-rodent species, the surgeon is required to wear surgical gown, cap, mask and shoe covers.
What are 9 requirements of a large animal facility
- 1. Constructed by materials that are imperious to moisture.
- 2. Prevents waste gas scavenging system
- 3. Central Storage area
- 4. Surgery supply - surg equipment, autoclave
- 5. Scrub sink located near OR
- 6. OR must contain EKG inside and everything else outside
- 7. Post op recovery area should be available
- 8. Locker room should be provided for changing.
- 9. Diagnostic Lab - not necessary but helpful
List 4 roles of a Veterinarian team member
- 1. Typically a member of the IACUC
- 2. In-dept knowledge of protocols
- 3. Works closely with research scientist
- 4. Provides support to vet tech
List 4 roles of a Vet Tech - Surgical role
- 1. Provides anesthesia support and monitoring
- 2. Provides non-sterile surgical support
- 3. Compliance monitoring
- 4. Surgery facility maintenance
List 4 roles of Vet Tech - clinical role
- 1. Post-op management
- 2. Health rounds, patient records management and treatment
- 3. Sample collection and subsequent lab work
- 4. Manage preventative health programs
List 3 record keeping requirements
- Anesthetic records
- Control Drug logs
- Quality control
- Order: Lagomorpha
- Family: Leporidae
List 6 characteristics of rabbits
- (1) social animals
- (2) dig burrows
- (3) make nest and line with fur
- (4) young blind and helpless
- (5) susceptible to myxomatosis
- (6) warrens
List 6 characteristics of hares
- (1) usually solitary
- (2) do not dig burrows
- (3) rest in depressions called "forms"
- (4) young born fully furred with eyes open
- (5) generally larger than rabbits
- (6) not susceptible to myxomatosis
- Derived from: European wild rabbit
- Scientific name: Oryctolagus cuniculis
List 4 advantages and 4 disadvantages to using domestic rabbits in research.
- Advantages: (1) good antibody producers; (2) large body of research already done on rabbits; (3) large enough for some major surgical procedures; (4) some genetically unique strains available
- Disadvantages: (1) variable response to anesthetic agents; (2) more prone to cardiovascular failure (3) stress prone diseases such as coccidiosis; (4) respiratory disease due to Pasteurella decreases gaseous exchange
What breed of rabbit is predisposed to high cholesterol?
Lifespan of domestic rabbit
Normal lifespan and record
- 1. 5-10 years, record 15 years
- 2. Commercial usually 2-3 years
- 3. Laboratory: a few days to several years
6 Disposition and Behaviors of Domestic rabbits
- 1. alert and docile, adapt readily to cages
- 2. frightened rabbits may kick, jump or scream
- 3. can occasionally get attack rabbits
- 4. play with feeders, water bottles and lickers
- 5. males spray urine
- 6. adult males fight with other adult males
Domestic rabbit Teeth:
_________ grow continuously
- dental formula: 1:2/1 (peg teeth), C:0/0, P:3/2, M:3/3
- incisors grow continuously
- Urine pH: 8.2 moderate proteinuria normal
- Temperature: 99.1 - 103 F
- Blood volume: apx 6% of body weight
- Heart rate: 250-300 bpm
- Hematocrit: 40-45%
What is the maximum of percentage of the total blood volume on repeated weekly draws on a domestic rabbit?
What is the percentage of the total blood volume on a single occasion?
How do you replace the lost blood volume to minimize adverse effects?
- Administering saline intravenously
Parturition: (name and unique quality)
Babies are called:
- Puberty: 5-9 months
- Estrous Cycle: Polyestrus/Induced ovulator
- Gestation: 30-32 days (up to 45 days in hares)
- Parturition: called kindling - split parturition can occur up to 3 days apart
- Babies are called: bunnies or kits (hares called leverets)
- Litter size: 3-10 record 23
- Weaning at: 8 weeks
What is a parasympatholytic that you would not use on rabbits?
Atropine because some rabbits can eat deadly nightshade with impunity.
What disease results in clinical manifestations
(1) respiratory disease or "snuffles"
(2) torticollis due to otitis media
What disease causes bacterial overgrowth due to environmental factors such as weaning stress, feed change or antibiotic administration (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, clindamycin, lincomycin and tylosin)?
What is the etiology?
- Clostridium spiriforme
List 2 heritable disease associated with rabbits
- Buphthalmia - used as a model for glaucoma
List 3 management related conditions associated with rabbits
- Ulcerative pododermatitis "sore hocks"
- broken back -fracture pr dislocation
- Gastric trichobezoars - "hairballs"
What is a common sedation cocktail for rabbits?
- 3 parts ketamone (100 mg/ml) to 1 part acepromazine (10 mg/mL)
- Dose at 0.4 mL/kg IM or IV
List 6 research uses for primates
- Parkinson's disease
- Reproduction (rheeses monkey)
- Cognition (macaques)
- Vision - glaucoma & cataracts
What is 4 general characteristics to distinguish New World primates from Old World primates?
- New World require Vitamin D3, some have prehensile tails, have no ischial callosities and no opposable thumbs.
- Old Old primates do not have Vitamin D3 requirement, no prehensile tails, some ischial callosities and all have opposable thumbs.
What disease causes mild disease in macaques and is potentially fatal causing encephalitis in non-host species (humans)
Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1
What 4 agents are related to bites and scratch exposure?
- Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1
- Pasteurella multocida
- Clostridium tetani
What agents are related to needle sticks?
Cercopithecine herpesvirus1, filoviruses, malburg virus, Ebola virus, retrovirus - type D, Pox virus, Monkey pox, benign epidermal monkeys, yaba-like disease, molluscum contagiosum; trypanosoma cruzi, experimental agents, hepatitis and malaria
What disease are related to Airboerne transmission?
Tuberculosis, measles, influenza, filoviruses, common respiratory bacteria, Streptococcus, Bordetella, Pasteurella, Klebsiella, Hemophilus
What diseases are related to Direct contact transmission?
Enteric bacteria and parasites, diarrhea, salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Protozoa, entamoeba histolytica, Crytosporidium, Cestodes and Nematodes.
What infrequent lab animal is used in research for Periodontitis?
Rice rat (Oryzomys palustris)
What infrequent lab animal is used in research based on its resistance to mouse hepatitis and that it is a natural reservoir for Hantaan virus?
Deer Mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus)
What infrequent lab animal is used in research in gene therapy for cystic fibrosis?
Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus)
What infrequent lab animal is used in research for it eusocially huddling behavior?
Naked Mole Rat (Heterocephalus glaber)
What infrequent lab animal is used in research because it has separate thymus glands in the cervical and mediastinal areas?
Degu, trumpet tailed rad (Octodon degu)
What infrequent lab animal is used in research for esophageal burn research and because it is 300 times more resistant to rabies than dogs and mycobacterium sp.?
Opossum (Didelphis virginiana)
What infrequent lab animal is used in research for Lepromatous leprosy - Mycobacterium leprae?
Nine-Banded Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)
What infrequent lab animal naturally has the diseases canine distemper and feline panleukopenia?
New World Mink (Mustela vision)
What size needles do you use for IM, SQ, ID or IV injections?
20 - 30 ga
Blood collection in rabbit collection from Marginal ear vein - What size needle should you use?
Amount of blood you can collect?
- 25 ga 5/8" - 22 ga 1"
- 0.5 - 5 mL
Blood collection from ear artery of rabbit
What size needle
Amount of blood that can be collected?