Sociology Essentials Chapters 8,10,11,15,16,19

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Sociology Essentials Chapters 8,10,11,15,16,19
2013-12-01 14:04:45

Chapters 8,10,11,15,16
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  1. Caste System
    Ones place in the stratification system meaning given to a individual by circumstances at birth
  2. Class System
    Stratification Exist but persons placement in the class system can change according to personal achievements
  3. Social Class
    is the social structural position groups hold relative to economic, political, and cultural resources
  4. Economic Restructuring
    decline of manufacturing jobs in US
  5. Wealth
    monetary value of everything one actually owns
  6. Status attainment
    the process by which people end up in a given position
  7. Socioeconomic Status
    derived from income, occupational prestige, and education
  8. Median Income
    midpoint of all household incomes
  9. Educational Attainment
    Measured(Total number of years of education)
  10. Meritocracy
    system in which ones status is based on merit or accomploshments
  11. Class Consciousness
    perception that a class structure exist along with feeling shared identification with others in ones class
  12. Ideology
    belief systems that support the status quo
  13. Carl Marx
    class system by goods produced and distributed
  14. Max Weber
    Class, Status, Party
  15. Feminization of Poverty
    large portion of poor women and children
  16. culture of poverty
    argument attributes the major causes of poverty and absence of work values, from generation to generation
  17. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
    a life limit of five years for people to receive aide and requires all welfare participants to work for two years
  18. Ethic Group
    social category for people of a shared common culture
  19. Racialization
    social category takes on what society perceives to be racial characteristics
  20. Racial Formation
    The process by which a group comes to be defined as a race
  21. Minority Group
    Any distinct group in society that shares a common group characteristic and is forced to occupy a low status.
  22. Dominant Group
    Assigns a racial ethnic group to subordinate status
  23. Stereotype
    oversimplified beliefs about members of a social group
  24. Salience Principle
    categorize people on basis of what appears initially prominent, and obvious, about them
  25. Stereotype Interchangeability
    Stereotypes epically negative ones are interchangeable form culture to culture
  26. Prejudiced
    in evaluation of a social group and the individuals within it based on conceptions about the social group held despite the facts that disapprove of them
  27. Discrimination
    overt negative and unequal treatment of members of a social category solely because of their membership to that group
  28. residential segregation
    spatial separation of different races based on their culture or race
  29. Institutional Racism
    negative treatment and oppression of one racial ethnic group by societies existing institutions
  30. Racial Profiling
    African Americans severe longer sentences for same cirme
  31. Aversive Racism
    Consistently avoiding another race
  32. Authoritarian Personality
    tendency to rigidly categorize other people
  33. Segregation
    spatial and social seperation of racial and ethnic groups
  34. Urban Underclass
    a grouping of people who live at the absolute bottom of the socioeconomic ladder in urban areas
  35. hyper-segregation
    Refers to extreme segregation
  36. Transgender
    those who live in a gender from which they are assignment (the opposite)
  37. Gender Socialization
    men and women learn associated things with their sex
  38. Gender Identity
    ones definition of ones self, man or woman
  39. Title IX
    Passed in schools to ban discrimination of gender
  40. Homophobia
    fear or hatred of homosexuals
  41. Gendered Institutions
    different placement of men and women in institutions
  42. Gender Stratification
    hierarchical status of social and economic resources according to gender
  43. Gender Apartheid
    Extreme exclusion of women
  44. Matriarchy
    Society where women have power over men
  45. Labor Market Theory
    Women earn different amounts because of their gender
  46. Gender Segregation
    Separated into different occupational categories based on gender.
  47. Discrimination
    Practices that single out a single ethic group
  48. Feminism
    a single way of thinking about women
  49. Liberal Feminism
    Argues feminism is from past barriers
  50. Socialist Feminism
    radical prospective that interprets the origins of women oppression
  51. Propaganda
    disseminated with intention to justify power
  52. Nationalism
    strong identity associated with an extreme sense of allegiance to ones culture nation
  53. Authority
    power perceived by others as legitimate or formal
  54. Traditional Authority
    certain people or groups legitimate power in society
  55. Rational-Legal Authority
    Stems from rules, regulations and laws.
  56. Bureaucracy
    formal organization characterized by authority of hierarchy
  57. Pluralist Model
    interprets power in society as derived from representation of different groups
  58. Interest Group
    organized to promote its own agenda
  59. Power Elite Model
    dominate ruling class controls all major institutions
  60. Interlocking Directorates
    same people sit on board of directors (organizational)
  61. Government
    Institution that governs society
  62. Democracy
    represent all people through vote
  63. Gender Gap
    differences between men and women in political attitudes and behavior
  64. Capitalism
    economic system based on principles of marketing competition, and pursuit of profit
  65. Socialism
    institution characterized by state government production are property of state not individual
  66. Communism
    industry is owned by state
  67. Global Economy
    all dimensions of economy now cross borders
  68. Multinational Corporations
    large amounts of their revenue are from foreign affairs
  69. Deindustrialization
    transition from goods producing to goods are supervised
  70. Automation
    Process by which humans are replaced by machines
  71. Contingent Workers
    Workers who do not hold regular jobs
  72. Glass Ceiling
    term used to describe the limits to advancement of women, race experience at work
  73. Census
    head count of population of a country
  74. Demography
    study of current states changes over time
  75. Immigration
    adds to population
  76. Emigration
    Departure of people
  77. Infant Mortality Rate
    number of deaths per year infants
  78. Life Expectancy
    average number of years a member of a group can live
  79. Malthusian Theory
    population grows faster than subsistence needed to sustain it
  80. Louis Wirth
    argued city was center distant, cold interpersonal interaction
  81. Population Density
    total number of people per square mile
  82. Social Change
    alteration of social interaction, institutions, and elements of culture over time
  83. Microchanges
    subtle altercations in day to day interactions between people
  84. Macrochanges
    gradual transformations that occur on a broad scale
  85. Cyclical Theories
    social structure and culture that are believed to reoccur at regular intervals
  86. Dependency Theory
    uses other nations for growth
  87. Modernization Theory
    Technical Changes to society
  88. Revolution
    overthrow of state or total transformation
  89. Cultural Diffusion
    transition of cultural elements from one society to another
  90. Collective Behavior
    unusual conventions guide behavior
  91. Social Movements
    resist or promote society change
  92. Reactionary Movement
    resist change or reinstate a earlier one
  93. Reform Movement
    Seek Change through legal or other mainstream
  94. Resource Mobilization Theory
    movements gain monument by resources
  95. Political Process Theory
    achieve success by exploiting a combination of internal factors
  96. Frames
    Schemes of interpretation that allow people to identify events
  97. New Social Movement Theory
    conceptually links culture