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Which of the following statements is true?
The kidneys are paired organs that regulate water and electrolyte balance in terrestrial vertebrates. The kidneys also remove nitrogenous wastes from the blood and eliminate them in the urine
What is the basic functional unit of the kidney?
The nephron. Nephrons perform the work required to maintain water and electrolyte balance.
Which of the following represents the correct sequence of flow through the nephron?
- Renal corpuscle > proximal tubule > loop of Henle > distal tubule > collecting duct
- Urine formation in mammals starts with filtration by the renal corpuscle. The volume and composition of the filtrate is modified as it progresses through the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule. Final adjustments to the filtrate take place in the collecting duct.
What is the driving force for the filtration of blood by the renal corpuscle?
- Higher pressure in glomerular capillaries than in the surrounding Bowman's capsule
- The blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries is higher than in the Bowman's capsule, so water and small solutes are forced out of the blood through capillary pores, leaving the larger components of the blood behind.
Which regions of the nephron function independently of hormonal control for the most part?
Renal corpuscle, proximal tubule, and loop of Henle. Filtration, reabsorption, and the establishment of an osmotic gradient by these regions of the nephron are largely unregulated.
In which region of the nephron is a steep osmotic gradient created?
Loop of Henle. The steep osmotic gradient created along the loop of Henle allows water and salts to be returned to the body.
Which of the following statements best describes the actions of the hormone ADH on the nephron?
ADH causes the collecting duct to increase water reabsorption by the surrounding tissue under conditions of dehydration. ADH increases the water permeability of the distal tubule and collecting duct, increasing the amount of water reabsorbed into the surrounding tissue and decreasing the amount lost as urine.
Urine formed by a kidney collects in the _____ before being drained from the kidney by the _____ and transported to the _____.
renal pelvis ... ureter ...urinary bladder This is the appropriate sequence of the flow of urine.
The _____ are the major blood vessels transporting blood to the kidneys.
renal arteries. The word "renal" refers to a kidney. Recall that arteries transport blood away from the heart. Renal arteries transport blood to the kidneys.
The outer part of the kidney is the _____.
cortex. The cortex is the outer part of the kidney.
Which of these is the functional unit of a kidney?
nephron. The nephron is the functional unit of a kidney.
The movement of substances out of the glomerulus and into Bowman's capsule is referred to as _____.
filtration. Blood pressure is the force behind the filtration of substances out of the glomerulus and into Bowman's capsule.
The movement of substances from the blood into the proximal tubule is known as _____.
secretion. Secretion is the movement of substances from the blood into the kidney tubules.
Which of these is reabsorbed from filtrate?
all of these
All of these, as well as bicarbonate ions, are reabsorbed from the filtrate.
As filtrate moves down the loop of Henle, the surrounding interstitial fluid becomes _____ concentrated than the filtrate, so _____ leaves the filtrate.
more ... water. The increasing solute concentration of the interstitial fluid results in water leaving the filtrate by osmosis.
The most abundant solute in urine is _____.
- urea (and other nitrogenous wastes)
- Nitrogenous wastes, such as urea, are the primary solute found in urine.
Glucose is removed from filtrate by _____.
active transport. The reabsorption of glucose requires the expenditure of energy.
Under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), _____ is produced.
more concentrated urine Under the influence of ADH more concentrated urine is produced and the body conserves water.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) makes the _____ permeable to water.
collecting duct Making the collecting duct permeable to water results in the reabsorption of water.