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1. The right side of the heart is most involved in:
D. Pumping blood in the pulmonary circuit
2. Which of the following statements (A-D) about blood vessels is FALSE? If statements A-D aretrue, then choose E.
- A. Arteries contain thick, muscular, and elastic walls
- B. Elasticity in arteries and arterioles helps to reduce the total pressure of the blood containedwithin during ventricle contracting (systole)
- C. Precapillary spinsters contract to increase blood velocity in the capillary beds whichincreases nutrient and gas exchange
- D. Venules and veins have thinner walls and lower blood pressure than their atrialcounterparts
- E. All of the above statements about blood vessels are TRUE
What would happen if there was a mutation and there were no valves in the veins in a human?
B. Blood would have difficulty returning to the heart
4. Blood is pumped at high pressures in arteries from the heart to ensure that all parts of the bodyreceive adequate blood flow. Capillary beds, however, would hemorrhage under direct arterialpressures. How does the design of the circulatory network contribute to reducing bloodpressure to avoid this scenario?
B. The total cross-sectional diameter of the arterial circulation increases withprogression from artery to arteriole to capillary, leading to a reduced bloodpressure.
5. In which blood vessel is blood velocity the lowest?
6. You are a physician, and you saw a patient who complained of abnormal fatigue during exercise.You found that the immediate problem was a buildup of carbon dioxide in the tissues. Whatwas the most likely cause of this patient’s fatigue?
C. abnormal carbonic anhydrase
7. Which of the following statements about the relative partial pressures of gasses (pO2 or pCO2) inthe blood is incorrect?
C. The pO2 in the capillaries leaving the alveoli > the pO2 in the capillaries entering thetissues
8. A decrease in arterial in blood pressure will have what effect on blood velocity in the capillaries?
B. It will decrease blood velocity in the capillaries
10. Why is a fungus sometimes called “an animal inside-out” ?
C. Fungi secrete enzymes and absorb the digested nutrients externally
11. How is the majority of CO2 transported in the blood?
D. As HCO3 -
12. The function of mechanical digestion is to break down large chunks of food into smaller pieces.Why is this important?
C. Smaller pieces of food have more surface area for chemical digestion than do largerpieces of food.
13. When a patient has his gallbladder removed, which of the following food types would a doctorrecommend this patient consume in lower quantities?
14. What is the primay function of the roof of the mouth?
A. It enables mammals to chew and breathe at the same time
Which organs listed below are the primary source(s) of nutrient absorption in the human digestivesystem?
B. Small Intestine only
What is the function of the Na+/K+ pump in the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the smallintestine?
B. To pump Na+ from the lumen epithelium cells into the blood to create a Na+ gradient
What is Olestra?
D. An artificially produced fat substitute which caused many unpleasant side effects
18. A drug that inhibits sodium and chloridepumping out of the ascending limb of theLoop of Henle would result in:
D. less water removed from thedescending limb
19. A drug that allowed osmosis to occur in theascending limb of the Loop of Henle wouldresult in:
- A. less water removal from the filtrate
- B. increased urine production
- C. increased filtrate volume whencompared to non-druggedindividuals
- D. All of the above
- E. None of the above
20. What is the advantage of a longer Loop of Henle?
B. better water reabsorption
21. Which of the following statements (A-D) about filtration of the blood in the glomerulus isFALSE? If statements A-D are true, then choose E.
- A. The diameter of the arteriole entering the glomerulus (afferent arteriole) is lessthan the diameter of the arteriole leaving the glomerulus (efferent arteriole).
- B. Blood pressure in the glomerulus is higher than in most capillary beds
- C. Fluid leaving the glomerulus is captured by the Bowman’s capsule. The fluid is nowcalled the filtrate
- D. Podocytes surround glomerular capillaries and aid in filtration
- E. All of the above statements about filtration in the glomerulus are TRUE
You drink a lot of water very quickly. How will this affect your subsequent ADHconcentrations in the blood?
B. This will decrease ADH concentration in the blood
What would happen if you experimentally introduced bicoid mRNA’s in both ends of afertilized egg?
B. You would end up with an embryo with two heads
During Drosophila development, there is a regulatory cascade of gene activation. Theproper sequence for this cascade is
D. bicoid, gap genes, pair-rule genes, and segment polarity genes
In snake populations, rare individuals are found that have well-developed hind limbs, but arenormal in all other respects. These unusual snakes suggest that:
- A. mutations in genes that repress expression of hindlimb organizer genes can cause asnake to have limbs
- B. some snakes have mutations in Hox genes that permit development of limbs
- C. snakes retain the genes for hindlimb pattern formation, even though the genes areusually not activated during development
- D. All of the above might explain this rare condition.
- E. None of the above explain this rare condition
26. Evolutionary theory has until recently stressed genetic mutations that alter protein aminoacid sequences as the major source of variation that leads to speciation. Evo-devo(evolutionary developmental biology) offers a different understanding of the role ofgenetic change in evolution. Which of the following statements best summarizes thisunderstanding?
A. Similar genes are found in most developing animal bodies; changes in the timesand places they are expressed can lead to phenotypic variation.
27. Early human development shows a flipper-like structure first developing. Then, selfdestructionof cells in this flipper lead to the development of individual fingers. This cellself-destruction is know as:
28. Drosophila fruit flies possess an exoskeleton barrier, have cells which can recognize self andnon-self cells, and perform phagocytosis on non-self cells. They do not possess Helper TCells, Cytotoxic T Cells, nor can they produce antibodies. What can you say aboutDrosophila immune systems?
C. They possess innate immune systems but lack adaptive (acquired) immunesystems
29. The following proteins are on the approved list for self cells:
A, B, C, G, J, M, P, X, Z, 1, 2, 9
You are given cells with the following surface proteins - how many of them containantigens?
I. A, C, G, J, N, Z, 1
III. A, B, C, G, J, M, P, X, Z, 1, 2, 9
IV. J, M, N, X, Z
IV. C, G, J, 1, 2, 9
30. HIV, the virus which causes AIDS, attacks cells with CD4 protiens on their cell surfaces.Which cells are going to be primarily targeted by HIV?
A. Helper T Cells
31. Which of the following must occur to activate a B Cell?
A. A & C
B. Contact with an effector Helper T Cell
C. B & C
D. Contact with an Antigen Presenting Cell
E. Contact with a pathogen
A. A & C
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
32. An activated (effector) Cytotoxic T cell can recognize a pathogenic E. coli bacteria strainand kill it. This cell encounters an epithelial cell infected with this year’s strain of fluvirus. How will the Cytotoxic T cell react to the virus-infected cell?
A. Ignore the infected epithelial cell
33. Which of the following best explains the actions of mast cells shortly after tissue is injured?
C. Mast cells release different chemical messengers, one that causes constriction inthe region of blood loss, and another that causes dilation away from theinjury to promote quicker healing.
34. Which line of defense is most effective in keeping the body free of pathogens?
A. The first line of defense (skin and mucous membranes)
35. A certain cell type has existed in the blood and tissue of its vertebrate host's immune systemfor over 20 years. One day, it recognizes a newly arrived antigen and binds to it,subsequently triggering a secondary immune response in the body. Which of thefollowing cell types most accurately describes this cell?
A. Memory Cell
36. When you get an immunization such as a flu shot, what is being injected into your body?
D. A deactivated flu virus which still causes your body to have an immune responsewhich grants you further immunity
37. What is the primary function of the medulla oblongata?
C. Regulate breathing & heart rate
38. What is taking place during repolarization of a neuron?
C. K+ are opening, allowing K+ to rush out
39. What would happen to the cell's membrane potential if you experimentally increase theconcentration of K+ inside a cell while maintaining other ion concentrations as they were?
A. The membrane potential would become less negative.
40. Epinephrin an amino-acid derivative hormone. How does it act upon the target cells?
C. Epinephrin binds to receptors on the cell surface. This initiates a cascaderesponse inside the cell
41. What is a pluripotent cell?
B. A cell capable of differentiating into any of the three germ layers (i.e. it candifferentiate into any fetal or adult cell)
42. In fish and birds, what is the function of the BMP4 protein?
D. It increases bone deposition
43. What odd trait did all of the women Mike dated have in common?
D. They were all left handed