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2013-12-01 18:51:58
Muscle tissue

Myology study of musscle tissue
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  1. Three types of muscle tissue
    Skeletal, smooth and cardiac
  2. Non-striated SMOOTH muscle
    • short, spindle-shaped cells
    • lacks striped (striated)
    • involuntary muscle
    • found in viscera (internal organs)
    • Cells can divide
    • Only in one organ-uterus during pregnancy can divide
  3. Striated Cardiac Muscle
    • Long, branched fibers comprised of many cells stacked end to end
    • Striated appearance
    • Involuntary muscle
    • Found in the Heart
    • To specialized to divide- no cell division
  4. Striated skeletal muscle
    • long multinucleated cells (more than one nucleus)
    • voluntary muscle
    • Powerful muscles of the musculoskeletal system
  5. Functions of Muscle Tissue
    • Movement
    • support and maintain posture
    • heat production
  6. Muscle Belly
    • Contains the muscle cells that generate contraction
    • muscle cells can only pull on bones they can't push
  7. Tendons
    • Attach muscle to bone
    • made of dense regular CT
  8. Origin
    • less mobile boney attachment
    • usually the proximal attachment
  9. Insertion
    • more mobile boney attachment
    • usually the distal attachment
  10. Skeletal muscle organs
    Muscle cells, myocytes, muscle fiber
  11. Endomysium
    • Loose connective tissue
    • surrounds individual muscle fibers
  12. Perimysium
    • Dense irregular connective tissue
    • surrounds a group of muscle fibers (fasciculias)
  13. Epimysium
    • Dense irregular connective tissue
    • surrounds entire muscle
  14. fascia
    • dense irregular CT
    • surrounds a group of muscles
    • separates the integument from the muscles
  15. The tendon
    is continuous with the endomysium, perimysium and epimysium of muscle and the periosteum of bone
  16. Myofibril
    • Specialized contractile element of the muscle cell
    • made up of thick and thin myofilaments (protein bundles)
  17. Thick filament
    contains myosin: muscle protein that changes shape and grabs actin.
  18. Thin filament
    • contains actin and TTC
    • Actin:muscle protein with myosin binding sites.
    • is pulled over or "slides" over myosin
  19. Troponin-Tropomyosin complex TTC
    • During rest this protein binds to actin and covers myosin binding sites, thus preventing contraction.
    • Actin and myosin are the two sliding elements of the myofibril.
  20. Sarcomere
    • basic functional unit of skeletal muscle
    • sacromeres are stacked end to end to form the myofibril
  21. z line
    runs from one zline to the next z line
  22. Calcium's role in initiating muscle contraction
    calcium is the "key" that intiates muscle contraction
  23. relaxed state- at rest
    myosin binding sites are blocked
  24. Attachment
    calcium enters, binds to TTC and moves it out of the way
  25. Power stroke
    actin "slides" or is pulled over myosin
  26. Release and reset
    • energy in the form of ATP is used to release and reset myosin
    • This step consumes ATP(energy)
  27. Removing the calcium
    as long as calcium is present and ATP is available the process keeps repeating.  ATP is also used to pump calcium out so the muscle can relax
  28. Energy Source- the ATP molecule
    • ATP is the Fuel
    • ATP is the energy source for muscle contraction and is required for
    • 1. detaching the myosin from actin
    • 2. removing calcium from the area.