Therapeutics Female 3
Card Set Information
Therapeutics Female 3
Therapeutics Female 3
What populations are at risk for Toxic shock syndrome?
Tampon use for more than 8 hours, high absorbency tampon use, diabetes, alcoholism, minor trauma, recent surgery
What is the most common bacterial infection?
What bacteria is implicated in most UTIs?
How do UTIs develop?
Normal vaginal flora is introduced to the urethra through sexual activity, foreign instrumentation or compromised immunity
What are the signs and symptoms of a UTI?
Urge to urinate, small frequent urination, burning, cloudy urine, strong urine smell, pelvic pain, blood in urine
What are the risk factors for UTI?
Female, sexual activity, post-menopause, se of spermicides/diaphragms, kidney stones, catheter, immunosuppression, Urinary tract abnormalities
What non-pharmacological treatments are there for UTI?
Drink lots of water, avoid coffee, alcohol and soft drinks, heating pad on abdomen
What pharmacologic options are available for UTI treatment?
Sodium Salicylate, Phenazopyridine and Methenamine
What patients are at risk of Sodium Salicylate use for the treatment of UTI?
Hypertensive, heart disease and GI issues
What are the consequences of use for Sodium Salicylate?
GI distress, rash, HA and dizziness
What is the MOA for sodium salicylate in the treatment of UTI?
Inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
What is the MOA for Phenazopyridine?
Azo dye that acts as a local anesthetic in the urinary tract
What is the recommended dose of Phenazopyridine for the treatment of UTIs?
100-200mg TID after meals for 2 days
Is Phenazopyridine usually used alone or in combination?
Combination with an antibiotic
What are the consequences of use for Phenazopyridine?
Headache/dizziness and stomach cramps (well tolerated)
What populations are at risk for taking Phenazopyridine?
What should you counsel patients using Phenazopyridine on?
Urine will be dark orange
What is the MOA of Methenamine for the treatment of UTIs?
Metabolized to ammonia and formaldehyde in the urine, formaldehyde has anti-bacterial properties
What are the consequences of use for Methenamine?
Pruritis, N/V (large doses can also irritate the bladder)
What patients are at risk when taking Methenamine?
Gout, hepatic impairment
What is the safety and effectiveness rating for Cranberry in the treatment of UTI?
Likely safe and possibly effective AT PREVENTION
Is Cranberry effective in the treatment of a UTI?
No, useful only for prevention
What is the MOA of cranberry in the prevention of UTI?
Proanthocyanadins in cranberry wrap around bacteria and prevent them from adhering to the urinary wall
Does Cranberry acidify the urine?
What are the consequences of use for Cranberry in treatment of UTI?
Large intake may cause GI distress
What populations are at risk when using cranberry in the treatment of UTI?
Prone to kidney stones, aspirin allergy, diabetics
Define overactive bladder:
bladder has problems storing urine leading to urgency and incontinence
What are the two main type of overactive bladder?
Stress and Urge
What proportion of women have overactive bladder?
50% in nursing homes, 10-70% in the community
What are the signs and symptoms of Overactive bladder?
Sudden urge to urinate, Nocturia, frequent urination, involuntary urination
What is the definition of frequent urination?
What are the at risk groups for Overactive bladder?
Age, pregnancy, obesity, high impact exercise, diuretic use
What are the non-pharmacological treatments for overactive bladder?
Weight loss, fluid restriction, scheduled bathroom breaks, proper diuretic use, avoiding caffeine/alcohol, kegels
What drugs are available for the treatment of Overactive Bladder?
What is the MOA of Oxybutynin?
Inhibits ACHE on smooth muscle, direct antispasmodic effect
What dose of Oxybutynin would be recommended for the treatment of Overactive bladder?
3.9 mg/day (change patch every 4 days)
What are the consequences of use for Oxybutynin in the treatment of Overactive bladder?
Pruritus near application site, xerostomia, constipation, dizziness and drowsiness
What groups are at risk when using Oxybutynin?
Urinary retention, dementia, elderly, CV disease, GI issues, renal dysfunction
What is the definition of menopause?
Permanent end of fertility and menstruation, occurs 12 monthas after your last period
What is the average age of menopause?