ES 116 (Midterm 2)

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kl6847
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ES 116 (Midterm 2)
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2013-12-03 21:01:55
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Midterm 2
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  1. In Plan B Updates Lester Brown states the U.S. was on track to grow the largest crop of corn in 75 years. How many acres of corn were predicted to grow?
    96 million acres
  2. In Plan B Updates Lester Brown identifies the world's largest producer and exporter of corn. Which country was named?
    The United States
  3. In Plan B Updates, what percent of corn accounts for the U.S. grain harvest?
    4/5 or 80%
  4. In Plan B Updates, the big three grains of the world-corn, wheat, and rice are mentioned. What is the order of the grains by quantity produced?
    corn, wheat, rice
  5. In Plan B Updates, weekly _____ ____ published by the University of Nebraska show the drought stricken area spreading across the country until, by mid-July, it engulfed the entire Corn Belt
    weekly drought maps

  6. In Plan B Updates, what are indirect indicators of crop growing conditions?
    Temperature, rainfall, and drought
  7. In Plan B Updates, what will happen to food prices as the price of corn goes up?
    Food prices will rise also...possibly to record highs
  8. In Plan B Updates, what caused the abrupt doubling of world grain prices in 2008?
    As world food prices climbed, exporting countries began restricting grain exports to keep their domestic food prices down.
  9. In Plan B Updates, how did the importing countries react to the increased food prices/food lockdown imposed by exporting countries?
    The importing countries panicked. Some bought/leased land in other countries to produce food for themselves.
  10. In Plan B Updates: what species make up "forage fish?"
    Sardines, anchovies, herrings, and krill
  11. In Plan B Updates: What has caused humans to overfish the forage fish to alarmingly low numbers?
    The demand for animal-based protein. People feed the forage fish to livestock
  12. In Plan B Updates: Forage fish stocks are highly sensitive to __________ ______ and prone to population crashes.
    environmental change
  13. In Plan B Updates: Forage fish account for more than ___% of the 80 million tons of fish caught each year.

    A) 20
    B) 40
    C) 50
    D) 30
    D) 30
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. In Plan B Updates: 9 of every 10 forage fish hauled in are destined for the "reduction" factory. What happens there?
    The fish are cooked and pressed to extract the oil; the remains are dried and milled into fishmeal.
  15. In Plan B Updates: How many tons of fishmeal and tons of fish oil are produced each year?
    • 6 million tons of fishmeal
    • 1 million tons of fish oil
  16. In Plan B Updates: What is done with the 6 million tons of fishmeal produced annually?
    Feed for farmed fish, pigs, and poultry
  17. In Plan B Updates: In a report called "Little Fish, Big Impact" forage fish are said to be worth two times _____ in the ocean as they are on the boat.

    a) more
    b) less
    a) more
  18. In Plan B Updates: What were the first uses for forage fish for humans (besides eating)?
    • Fertilizer
    • substitute for whale oil (ex: leather, cosmetics)
  19. In Plan B Updates: What is the largest fishery in the world?
    The Peruvian Anchovy
  20. In Plan B Updates: Worldwide, 3/4 of the 72 marine ecosystems studied by the Lenfest Task Force contain predators dependent on forage fish for at least ____ their diet
    Half
  21. In Plan B Updates: Blue whales, Humboldt penguins, and yellowfin tuna rely on forage fish for at least 75% of their diet. What are the two likely outcomes due to the plummeting prey populations?
    Starvation and impaired breeding
  22. In Plan B Updates: Lenfest authors recommend that, in general, catches should be _____ their current levels.
    Half
  23. In Plan B Updates: Reducing demand for fishmeal and oil will largely depend on the __________ sector.
    aquaculture
  24. In Plan B Updates: With global fish catch no longer expanding, _________ will continue to satisfy the growth in worldwide demand for fish-based proteins.
    aquaculture
  25. In a New View of Real Estate: Robert Zimmer and his partners wanted to demonstrate that a business venture could showcase
    • Energy
    • Resource-saving technologies
    • strengthen local community
    • offer first-class elegance
    • reward its participants
  26. In a New View of Real Estate: The Zimmer group completed the hotel called __ __ __ _____ in 1991.
    The Inn of the Anasazi
  27. In a New View of Real Estate: How did the developers incorporate the green them of "reuse" in their hotel?
    They reused a 1960's steel-framed building that housed state penitentiary offices & was a juvenile detention center.
  28. In a New View of Real Estate: How did the developers "reduce" guests dependence on automobiles?
    The hotel was built in a central location
  29. In a New View of Real Estate: How did the developers support the local economy while providing good indoor air quality?
    The purchased local materials, of low toxicity, that lent "authenticity."
  30. In a New View of Real Estate: How did the developers make the Inn resource efficient?
    • They added:
    • water-saving fixtures
    • natural daylight
    • energy-efficient lighting
  31. In a New View of Real Estate: How did the developers make the restaurant support the regional economy?
    Purchasing produce grown by Hispanic Farmers whose families farmed since the Spanish Land Grant days.
  32. In a New View of Real Estate: How did the developers make the inn foster a strong community and cultural identity?
    The Inn promotes staff involvement in local nonprofit organizations and sponsors events to support diverse local cultures.
  33. In a New View of Real Estate: What is Green Development?
    Development that integrates social and environmental goals with financial considerations in projects of every scale and type
  34. In a New View of Real Estate: What does it mean for a project to have "more than a single face?"
    For any project the visible "green" feature might by energy performance, restoration, etc...
  35. In a New View of Real Estate: Green Building is about "solution multipliers." What are solution multipliers?
    One feature provides multiple benefits in reducing a project's impact on the environment.
  36. In a New View of Real Estate: For the developer and owner, green development offers many potential benefits such as...
    • reduced operating costs of buildings/landscapes
    • improved sales or leasing rates
    • higher property values
    • increased absorption or occupancy rates
    • reduced liability risk
    • better health
    • higher productivity of workers
    • avoidance of regulatory delays during permitting processes
    • reduced capital costs
  37. In a New View of Real Estate: The Elements of Green Development

    Common threads run through many green development projects. What are the 3 categories (elements)?
    • Environmental responsiveness
    • resource efficiency
    • community & cultural sensitivity
  38. In a New View of Real Estate: The Elements of Green Development

    Give and example of how the 3 categories reinforce each other?
    A development designed to reduce dependence on cars is likely to foster greater community cohesiveness and lower crime rates
  39. In a New View of Real Estate: The Elements of Green Development

    How is "environmental responsiveness" witnessed on a project?
    Green development projects are designed to restore and enhance natural habitats and resources

    ex: Buildings built to blend in with natural environment
  40. In a New View of Real Estate: The Elements of Green Development

    What is the key to  environmental responsiveness?
    Respecting-and using-that which is already at a location or naturally belongs there
  41. In a New View of Real Estate: The Elements of Green Development

    Some see green development as an "_____ ____" for bringing about ecological restoration.
    economic engine
  42. In a New View of Real Estate: The Elements of Green Development

    What is "resource efficiency?"
    The process of doing more with less...using fewer resources (or less scare resources) to accomplish the same goal
  43. In a New View of Real Estate: The Elements of Green Development

    Building in the U.S. use __% of our total energy and __% of our electricity.
    • 30
    • 60
  44. In a New View of Real Estate: How does Zimmer define community?
    Living patterns of relationships, comprised of individuals, families, friends, and institutions--all relating to the environment. Every living thing is connected.
  45. In a New View of Real Estate: What does "cultural sensitivity" mean?
    Being responsive to the local history, the culture, and the existing built environment of a given location
  46. In a New View of Real Estate:

    One of the key features of a successful green development is that it establishes and reinforces connections:between...
    • people and nature
    • people and place
    • buildings and nature
  47. In a New View of Real Estate:

    Ecology describes...
    the interconnections or mutual relations between living things and their environment
  48. In a New View of Real Estate:

    In social theory ecology describes...
    social and cultural patterns that result from relationships between people and resources
  49. In a New View of Real Estate:

    "ecology thinking" means looking at things in their ___ context, while seeking also to understand the ______ between parts. It recognizes that nothing exists in isolation; everything is part of a larger system
    • whole
    • interconnections
  50. In a New View of Real Estate: 

    ______  ______ is a way to achieve a level of sustainability in our resource consumption.
    Resource efficiency (one of the 3 key elements)
  51. In a New View of Real Estate: 

    ____ and ____ sensitivity addresses the fact that people, too, exist within a context--the network of human contacts on large & small scales & the historical & cultural milieu that defines what we are
    • community 
    • cultural
  52. In a New View of Real Estate: 

    What are the listed benefits of Green Development?
    • Reduced capital costs
    • Reduced operating costs
    • Marketing benefits, Free press/product differentiaion
    • Valuation premiums & absorption rates
    • streamlined approvals
    • reduced liablity risk
    • health & productivity
  53. In a New View of Real Estate: 

    What is the cost of health problems caused by poor indoor air quality (IAQ)?
    15 million $
  54. In a New View of Real Estate: 

    What 3 things were agreed on to be "linked" by the American people during a Roper study?
    • the natural environment
    • the social environemnt
    • overall quality of life
  55. In a New View of Real Estate: 

    What 4 components of planning and design help to redcue first-cost in development and ensure finalncial success for the developer and investors?
    • Whole system thinking
    • front-loaded design
    • end-use/least-cost considerations
    • teamwork
  56. In a New View of Real Estate: 

    What 3 key issues did Betsy and Chaffin address to ensure they would meet their vision for development on Spring Island?
    • Downsized the number of lots
    • established a trust to create nature preserve on the property
    • Planned development so it would foster a healthy interaction between people & the island's natural heritage
  57. In a New View of Real Estate: 

    What is "Whole-systems thinking?"
    A process through which the interconections between systems are actively considered and solutions ae sought that address multiple problems at the same time. 

    The search for "solution multipliers"
  58. In Environmental Justice: 

    What is "Environmental Racisim?"
    An extension of racism. Rules, regulations, policies, etc... that target certain communities for least desirable land uses, resulting in disproportionate exposure to toxic/hazardous waste in communities based on biological characteristics
  59. In Environmental Justice: 

    What is "Environmental Equity?"
    Equal protection of environmental laws
  60. In Environmental Justice: 

    What is "Environmental Justice?"
    Refers to those cultural norms & values, rules, regulations, behaviors, etc... where people can interact with confidence that their environment is safe, nurturing, and productive
  61. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    What is the definition of growth?
    An increase in size. Expanded community size
  62. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    What is the definition of development?
    • vigorous enterprise & a decent standard of living. 
    • An increase in quality and diversity
  63. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    What are the 4 types of towns?
    • Hungry
    • Rusty
    • Debtor
    • Booster
  64. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    Why do Hungry towns want growth?
    To save themselves from a stagnant or declining economy.
  65. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    Why do Rusty towns want growth?
    To upgrade old, deteriorating infrastructure and substandard public services
  66. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    Why do Debtor towns want growth?
    They're growing by choice or by chance and can't seem to keep up with expansions in infrastructure and public services required and demanded by, new residents
  67. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    Why do Booster towns want growth?
    They're riding a wave of prosperity. They feel and act as if the town will expand forever
  68. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    Why are revenues from new growth often insufficient to outweigh the costs of higher demand for such public services as schools, police, fire, roads, & sewers?
    They don't impose a large enough fee.
  69. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    What's the threshold between tolerable and intolerable growth?
    2.5%
  70. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    What's the real form of socialism?
    Accommodating expansion without charging costs to actual beneficiaries.
  71. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    What is "import replacement?"
    Producing locally what had previously been purchased from outside the community
  72. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    What are 2 ways to reduce imports?
    • Supporting existing businesses 
    • plugging unnecessary leakage ($/resources)
  73. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    What does it mean to plug energy leaks?
    insulating, caulking, installing new lighting, etc...
  74. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    What are the 3 important aspects of a new approach to economic development?
    • Renewability
    • Equity
    • Digestibility
  75. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    What is renewability in regard to a sustainable economy?
    Only use resources no faster than they can be replenished
  76. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    What does "equity among generations" mean?
    If a product/nutrients are used up now there won't be any for future generations to use. Every generation should have an equal share
  77. In "Paying for Growth, Prospering from Development" 

    What does "digestibility" mean?
    Development is not a straight line from harvest or extraction through production to consumption to disposal, but a circle that eliminates the disposal step and returns by-products of production and consumption to the system.

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