Biology Chapter 12 DNA and RNA

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  1. transformation
    process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria.
  2. bacteriophage
    virus that infects bacteria
  3. nucleotide
    monomer of nuclei acids made up of a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
  4. base pairing
    principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine.
  5. chromatin
    granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins.
  6. histone
    globular protein molecule  around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin.
  7. replication
    copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA.
  8. DNA polmerase
    enzyme that proofreads new DNA strands, helping to ensure that each molecule is a nearly perfect copy of the original DNA
  9. gene
    sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait.
  10. messenger RNA
    RNA molecules that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA
  11. ribosomal RNA
    type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes.
  12. transfer RNA
    type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
  13. transcription
    process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA.
  14. RNA polymerase
    enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription.
  15. promoter
    region of DNA that is embedded in the host cell's DNA.
  16. intron
    intervening sequence of DNA; does not code for a protein.
  17. exon
    expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
  18. codon
    three nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid.
  19. translation
    decoding of aRNA message into a polypeptide chain
  20. anticodon
    group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon.
  21. mutation
    change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information.
  22. point mutation
    mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another
  23. framshift mutation
    mutation that shifts that reading frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
  24. polypoidy
    condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes.
  25. operon
    group of genes operating together
  26. operator
    region of chromosomes in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is turned off
  27. differentiation
    process in which cells become specialized in structure and function.
  28. hox gene
    series of genes that controls the organs and tissues that develop in various parts of an embryo.
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Biology Chapter 12 DNA and RNA
2013-12-02 04:19:20
biology vocabulary
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