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What is meant by the term "anaerobic threshold" ?
The transition from predominantly aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production as workload increases.
- AnT is the last oxygen uptake rate value (VO2) fitting the linear trend when expired ventilation rate (VE) in liters per minute (L/min) is plotted against VO2 in liter per minute (L/min)
Methods of Identifying AnT
(1) identification of breakaway or greater than linear increase in VE when VE is plotted against VO2 or workload: often referred to as VENTILLARY THRESHOLD
- note that VO2 as well as heart rate increase linearly or proportionally as workload increases and do not have a breakaway or greater than linear increase as workload increases
(2) identification of a breakaway or greater than linear increase in lactic acid production rate when lactic acid production rate is plotted against VO2 or workload
- often referred to as lactate threshold or onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA)
(3) identification of a breakaway or greater than linear increase in carbon dioxide production rate when carbon dioxide production is plotted against VO2 or workload
(4) a peaking-out in the fraction (%) of carbon dioxide in the expired air (FECO2) and a bottoming-out in the fraction (%) of oxygen in the expired air (FEO2) as workload increases
(5) a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 12-16 (i.e., hard)
What is meant by the term maximal oxygen uptake rate?
also known as VO2 Max
The maximal rate at which oxygen can be consumed per minute (1/min or ml/kg/min).
It is the highest VO2 value achieved during a graded maximal effort exercise test.
Methods of Identifying VO2 Max
check out 4-3A or 4-4 for more info
(1) plateau (+ or - 2 ml/kg/min) or decrease in VO2 as workload increases
(2) heart rate is within 10 beats per minute (bpm) of age-predicted maximal heart rate, which is estimated to be 220 minus ago in years for land-based leg exercise
(3) R or RER value (i.e., respiratory exchange ratio) equal to or greater than 1.0
(4) a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 18-20 (i.e., very, very hard)
Why and how are cardiorespiratory endurace (maximal oxygen uptake rate), pulmonary (lung) volumes/function, body composition, and body building important for athletic performance and/or fitness and health?
What factors tend to influence body composition?
What are the benefits of exercise in a weight control program?
What are the causes of regulatory obesity?
(1) lack of daily physical activity
(2) excess caloric consumption due to easy availability of food
(3) association of food with emotional responses
(4) social and cultural pressures of food consumption
Approximately 5% of the obesity in the United Stated is attributable to metabolic disorders.
Know and understand in detail the various exercise and weight control concepts covered on (10-11 & 10-12)
How can underweightness and overweightness be identified?
What are the two components of body composition?
What are the density of the two components in relationship to the density of water?
Know and understand in detail the relationship between body weight, body volume, body density, and percent body fat
Known and understand how to perform underwater weighing as well as how to calculate body volume, body density, percent body fat, fat weight, lean body weight, and ideal body weight goal from the data collected on land and during the underwater weighing process
What is Archimedes Principle? How does it relate to underwater weighing?
Archimedes Principle states that an object submerged in water is buoyed up by a force equal to the volume of water displaced and that the volume of water displaced is equal to the weight lost by an object immersed in water.
In body composition determination, the specific gravity of lean body mass is 1.1 kg/L and the specific gravity of fat mass is .9 kf/L.
In underwater weighing conditions, body volume is basically equal to weight in air minus weight in water and body density is equal to body weight divided by body volume.
Know and understand how to perform anthropometric measurements as well as how to calculate body density, percent body fat, fat weight, lean body, and ideal body weight goal from the data collected from anthropometric skinfold and circumference measurements.
Know and understand the sources of error for submaximal leg (bicycle) ergometry testing, pulmonary testing, underwater weighing for determination of body composition, and anthropometric testing for determination of body composition and build
What factors should be used in selecting an anthropometric equation for estimating body composition?
(1) Gender or Sex
(3) Athlete or Non-Athlete (active vs. non-active)
(4) Ethnicity or Race
(5) Statistical Considerations
What tissues are primarily assessed by skinfolds, circumferences, and diameters?
What are the units of measurement for skinfolds, circumferences and diameters?
Circumferences to the nearest .1 cm
Diameters to the nearest .1 cm
Skinfolds to the nearest .5 mm
Know and understand the three general models that underlie anthropometric equations used for estimating body composition.
Know and understand in detail the measurements, calculations, and interpretation of results of body build evaluations from a somatogram, somatotyping, and reference weight.
Know and understand how reference weight can be used in conjunction with body composition analysis to change fat weight and lean body weight.
What are the primary body build characteristics described by ectomorphic, endomorphic, and mesomorphic body somatotype ratings?
In a somatogram, how are overweightness or under weightness (body weight-frame size relationships), excessrve body fat distribution, and pronounced muscular development identified?
Know and understand in detail how to administer a submaximal leg (bicycle) ergometer test as well as calculate and interpret the results of a submaximal leg (bicycle) ergometer test.
finish rest on 8-2B
(1) set seat height to achieve almost full leg extension on the pedal downstroke and then have the subject establish a pedaling cadence of 50 rpm against "0" kg workload
(2) at 50 rpm pedal against an initial resistance load for 2 minutes (2 minute work periods)
-for larger or more highly fit/trained individuals, the initial resistance or workload should be 1 kg or 300 kgm/min (300kgm = 50 rpm x 6m x 1kg)
-for smaller, less fit/trained or older individuals, the initial resistance or workload should be 0.5 kg or 150 kgm/min (150 kgm = 50 rpm x 6m x 0.5 kg)
(3) take the heart rate during the last 30 seconds of the intial workload
- -heart rate must be greater than or equal to 70% of PHRmax
- -record the heart rate during the last 30 seconds of the last two minutes at this final, steady-state, workload
-average the final two heart rates recorded during the last 30 seconds of the last two minutes
-the average of the final two heart rates is the steady-state heart rate at the final steady-state workload
-final workload is 4 minutes
(4) note the final steady-state workload and steady-state heart rate, then allow the subject to cool-down against "0" kg of resistance or workload as needed
What are the three assumptions that submaximal leg (bicycle) ergometer tests are based upon?
What factors may erroneously affect heart rate responses and consequently the results of a submaximal leg (bicycle) ergometer test?
In terms of cardiorespiratory fitness, how should maximal oxygen uptake rate be expressed?
What is considered to be a high, moderate, or average, and low maximal oxygen uptake rate?
- 80-90% of HR max
- 75-85% of HRR
- 75-85% of VO2 max
- RPE = 15-17 (hard to very hard)
- Hyperventilatory Response
- Respiratory Distress (i.e., rapid breathing rate with deep or large breaths)
- Incapable of passing the "talk test"
- Duration = 45-60 minutes per session
- Frequency = 5 days per week
- 70-80% of HR max
- 60-75% of HRR
- 60-75% of VO2 max
RPE = 13-15 (somewhat hard to hard)
Aware of ventilation rate (i.e., increase breathing rate and depth)
- Duration = 30-45 minutes per session
- Frequency = 4 days per week
- 60-70% of HR max
- 50-60% of HRR
- 50-60% of VO2 max
- RPE = 11-13 (fairly light to somewhat hard)
- Unaware of ventilation rate
- Breathing rate and depth is comfortable
- Capable of passing the "talk test"
- Duration = 20-30 minutes per session
- Frequency = 3 days per week
Know and understand in detail how to asses and calculate pulmonary lung volumes and functions as well as interpret the results of pulmonary (lung)n tests.
Know and understand the definitions of the various pulmonary (lung) volumes and capacities.
How do the various pulmonary (lung) volumes are capacities change during exercise as well as long-term training?