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What are the 5 Levels of Intimidation?
- Category 1
- Category 2
- Category 3a
- Category 3b
- Category 3c
What is Category 1 Level of Intimidation?
What is Category 2 Level of Intimidation?
Non-life-threatening but serious intimidation
What is Category 3a Level of Intimidation?
Category 3A – Witness is experiencing low-level harassment/intimidation
What is Category 3b Level of Intimidation?
Category 3B – Witness fears intimidation might occur at some point
What is Category 3c Level of Intimidation?
Category 3C – Witness is intimidated by the system/court procedure.
What are the 3 key needs of a intimidated witness?
1. Safety – they need to feel secure and protected. They will want to know that everything has been done to diminish the risk of intimidation to themselves and their families.
2. Information - they need know what is happening with the case and be kept up to date with its progress.
3. Support – they need easy access to the services and the people who can keep them engaged with the process. This will ensure they are not left feeling isolated.
Name the factors that someone could be a victim of hate crime
- - Race
- - Religion or belief
- - Sexual orientation
- - Gender reassignment
- - Disability
It is important to note that prejudicial behaviour towards a social group can be based on a wide range of identifying factors, not exclusively those mentioned above.
Also, some people can be the victim of hate crime based on more than one identifying factor.
Every victim of crime should be given a copy of the Home Office leaflet- What is it called?
'Victims of Crime'
What agencies can support victims?
- • Local Authority Probation Service NOMS
- -Victim Support Scheme (VSS)
- • Housing Department
- • Local Education Authority
- • Social Services department
- • Local Safeguarding Children Board
- • Crown Prosecution Service (CPS)
- • Primary Care Trusts
- • Voluntary community groups
- • Race Equality Councils (R.E.Cs)
- • Equality and Human Rights Commission
Every identified hate crime or incident should be recorded on force crime systems and allocated a unique reference number.
What is the minimum information required?
• Personal details for each victim including full name and address, date of birth, gender, religion (if any), ethnic group, sexual orientation (this information is, of course, voluntary).
• Status (if applicable), occupation, school (if applicable).
• Language spoken, whether a repeat victim and whether previous incident was reported.
• Details of the type of incident. The crime or details of the behaviour that led to the report should be recorded.
• Description of the location including home, place of worship or education, street, leisure facility, workplace, licensed premises, public transport, internet or other as appropriate.
• Geographic position, e.g. house number, street name, postcode or map reference.
• Description of incident to include whether the incident is part of a series, if an extremist organisation is involved and who identified the incident as a hate crime.
What 3 categories of help are provided by Victim Support?
- 1) Practical
- 2) Crisis intervention
- 3) Long Term Help
What type of Practical help can be provided for by Victim Support?
• replace broken windows etc.
• strengthen door locks etc.
• obtain information with regard to the criminal justice process, which may help a victim who has to attend an identification parade or go to court
• claim compensation through the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority or other compensation factors.
What type of Crisis Intervention can be provided for by Victim Support?
Crisis intervention is certainly associated with serious crimes such as rape, but even relatively minor incidents may cause the victim to experience some crises in their life and so necessitate the intervention by the VSS whose intention is to minimise the victim’s trauma.
This may be needed after a sudden unexpected incident which could cause long term emotional effects e.g. victims of road traffic collisions, accidents, sudden deaths. It need not be restricted to crimes.
How can Victim Support give Long Term help?
- Help may involve dealing with underlying problems, either related or unrelated to the crime.
- In such cases VSS would usually attempt to refer the victim to the appropriate (often statutory) service.
What does Victim Support Offer?
• advice on compensation and insurance matters
• liaison with other organisations on behalf of victims
• contact with other sources of help
• volunteers who will accompany people to the police station and to court.
• someone to talk to in confidence
• information on police and court procedures
What does PND stand for?
Penalty Notices for Disorder
Who can receive a PND
- A PND may be given at a police station or on the spot to those aged 18 or over.
- A PND will not be appropriate where the constable has reason to believe that the person is impaired by the influence of drugs or alcohol.
- The officer must have sufficient evidence as to the suspect’s age, identity and place of residence.
How much is the Penalty for an upper tier PND?
How much is the Penalty for a lower tier PND?
What are some of the Upper tier PND offences?
- * marked offences have additional specific guidance
- • Retail theft * (Less than £100)
- • Criminal damage * (Less than £300 damage)
- • Possession of cannabis *
- • Wasting police time or giving a false report
- • Harassment alarm or distress (Sec 5 Public Order Act 1986)
- • Throwing fireworks in a thoroughfare
- • Drunk and disorderly in a public place
- • Purchase of alcohol for a person under 18
What are some of the Lower tier PND offences?
- • Drunk in a highway
- • Littering
- • Throwing stones at a train
What is the Three-stage escalation procedure for possession of Cannabis?
Under the ACPO Guidance on Possession of Cannabis for Personal Use, 2009, there is a three-stage escalation procedure for cannabis possession under which it is expected that an offender will:
1. Receive a cannabis warning for a first possession offence.
2. A PND for a second offence.
3. Be arrested for a third offence.
At the point the PND is given an officer what will you need to:
• Explain the PND process to the person - including how the person should pay the penalty or request to be tried and the consequences of not paying the penalty, requesting to be tried or, where appropriate, completing an education course.
• Explain the implications of paying the penalty or completing the educational course - it does not form part of a criminal record but a record will be created on the PNC for PNDs issued for recordable offences. The PND may also be disclosed as part of an enhanced DBS check if deemed relevant.
• Ensure the PND is recorded appropriately
If aggravating factors are present disposal by way of PND may be inappropriate. List the 5 aggravating factors adopted by ACPO.
- Cannabis possession in a public place or view
- Locally identified policing problem
- Protecting young people
- Repeat or persistent offenders
- Impact on the offender
When an officer issues a penalty notice where should they make a corresponding entry?
In their pocket note book or MG11
What are the Signs and symptoms of drunkenness?
- • Lack of physical co-ordination
- • Slurred or incoherent speech
- • Breath smelling of intoxicating liquor
- • Eyes watery, bloodshot or glazed
- • Complexion flushed and sweaty
- • Clothing may be dishevelled, dirty or stained with vomit
Being found drunk –
Section 12 Licensing Act 1872
The Licensing Act 1872, Section 12 states that it is ?
‘An offence for any person to be found drunk in a highway or other public place, whether a building or not, or on licensed premises’.
Drunk and Disorderly – Section 91(1) Criminal Justice Act 1967
The Criminal Justice Act 1967, Section 91(1) states that it is?
‘an offence for any person who whilst drunk in a public place to be guilty of disorderly behaviour’
To qualify for a personal licence to serve or supply alcohol an individual must be what 4 things?:
- • Aged 18 or over.
- • Possess a ‘licensing’ qualification recognised by the secretary of state.
- • Have not had a personal licence forfeited in the previous five years.
- • Be in a position to show the licensing authority that they have not been convicted of any relevant offences or any ‘foreign offence’ see section Licensing Act 2003.
What is the definition of ‘late night refreshment?’
Premises selling food from 11pm to 5am.
List the five mandatory licensing conditions contained within the Licensing Act 2003
- Irresponsible promotions
- Directly dispensed alcohol
- Free tap water
- Age verification
- Minimum measures
What are the four licensing objectives within the Licensing Act 2003?
- The prevention of crime and disorder
- Public safety
- The prevention of public nuisance
- The protection of children from harm
What 3 things should first be considered at an Initial Investigation?
- 1. What exactly has occurred?
- 2. Is the incident a crime?
- 3. If so what sort of a crime?
National Crime Recording Standards (NCRS) The standard sets out three basic principles for the recording of crimes for constabularies to follow, What are they?
• All reports of incident, whether from victims, witnesses or third parties and whether crime related or not, will result in the registration of an incident report.
• Following the initial registration, an incident will be recorded as a crime (notifiable offence) if, on the balance of probability:The circumstances as reported amount to a crime defined by law, and There is no credible evidence to the contrary.
• Once recorded, a crime will remain recorded unless there is credible evidence to disprove that a crime has occurred.
What are the ten points of the modus operandi system
What are the 5 Key Aspects of an Initial Investigation?
- Scene Management
- Potential Evidence
- Key Considerations
- Initial Search
When arriving at a spontaneous firearms incident there are primarily six things that you should consider during your initial assessment of the scene, what are they?
(the 6 c's!)
- • Confirm
- • Cover
- • Contact
- • Civilians (members of the public)
- • Colleagues
- • Contain
Command structure In normal circumstances there are three levels to the command structure, what are they?
• Gold commander: Strategy - the overall intention to combine resources towards managing and resolving an event or incident.
• Silver commander: Tactics - the way that resources are used to achieve the strategic intentions within the range of approved tactical operations.
• Bronze commander: Action - organises the groups of resources to carry out the tactical plan.
What is Discretion?
- Discretion Discretion has been defined in a number of ways:
- • freedom of judgement and action
- • authority to decide and choose
- • selecting the best course of action, having recognised and considered all of the alternatives
Although not a statutory right, the proper use of discretion is recognised as a policing skill.
It is not your duty indiscriminately to prosecute every person who commits an offence.
What points that should be considered before using discretion?
- a. With whom am I dealing
- b. What are the possible outcomes
- c. When did the incident occur
- d. Is the incident taking place in a public or private space
- e. Why should I act or not
- f. What course of action should I take
What details should be included in a Personal Description of a suspect?
- Colour of skin
- Hairstyle and colour
- Distinguishing features (e.g. tattoos, scars, beard etc)
- Whether carrying anything.
Which two words should be avoided when describing people?
‘normal’ and ‘average’.
What should you take account of when obtaining details of height from a witness?
The type of shoes the suspect was wearing, it could have a significant affect on a person’s perception of height – a person who is actually 1.60m in flat soled shoes may appear to be around 1.70m if they are wearing 9 cms Stiletto heels.
Give an example of the Types of incident covered by Major Incident files
- Major Incident files will cover incidents at premises which manufacture or store dangerous or volatile materials such as petrochemicals, explosives or other dangerous substances, premises of high economic value, such as power stations, particularly nuclear power stations, premises likely to attract the attention of terrorists, such as military facilities or premises associated with animal testing, or premises of high commercial value such as banking centres.
- There will also be Major Incident files to cover incidents at airports or harbours and docks as well as those covering no fixed location such as railway or motorway incidents or air crashes.
When planning an operation of a challenging events it will require careful planning and preparation but what about equipment to assist the task?
- • vehicles for transporting detainees
- • temporary holding facilities
- • Police Support Units (PSU’s)
- • shields, ladders, evidence gathering equipment (cameras)
- • property containers (bags, knife tubes, drugs bags)
- • emergency lighting
- • drugs dogs
- • aerial support
- • firearms officers
- • officers entry enforcing equipment
- • mounted division, dog section, police motorcyclists
- • protective gloves
- • torches, drain traps, cordon tape, fire extinguishers
- • major incident boxes
- • Roads Policing support
- • drugs officers
- • CBRN officers
- • first aiders
- • mobile toilets, catering van
Give an example of the Types of incident covered by Individual Order for Specific Operations?
- Drugs raids
- Road checks
- Protest marches
What are the functions of an operational order?
- It lays out, with the benefit of advanced planning,
- -What it is intended to achieve
- -Who will do what and when
- -The amount of resources required
- -Rendezvous points
- -Prisoner and property handling
- -A host of other matters which may arise.