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hypertension, angina, arrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia, and increasing atrioventricular block to slow ventricular response in atrial fibrillation, acute myocardial infraction, migraine headaches, anxiety; mandatory as part of therapy for heart failure that is due to systolic dysfunction
b-Blockers in combination with diuretics
use for hypertension, diuretic, glaucoma
A-and b- Adenergic blocking agents
hypertension, chronic heart failure angina
- target the beta receptor, beta receptors are found on cells of the heart muscles, smooth muscles, airways, arteries, kidneys, and other tissues that are part of the sympathetic nervous system and lead to stress responses, epically when epinephrine beta blockers interfere with the binding to the receptor of epinephrine and other stress hormones, and weaken the effects of stress hormones.
- typically used for the management of cardiac arrhythmias, protecting the heart from a second heart attack after a first heart attack and hypertension
- relax ceratin muscles and hep small blood vessels remain open.
- the work by keeping the hormone norepinephrine from tightening the muscles in the walls of smaller arteries and veins, blocking that effect causes the vessels to remain open and relaxed, this improves blood flow and lowers blood pressure.
- can also improve urine flow in older men with prostate problems.
a1-adrenergic blocking agent
- use for hypertension, enlarge prostate
- blocks or reduce epinephrine and norepinephrine from binding on alpha adrenorecptors reduce arteriolar resistance and increase venous capacitance causes reflex tachycardia.
- depending on plasma concentration they may cause postural hypotension.
- alpha-1 blockers may decrease ldl and triglycerides and increase hdl
central a2- Agonists and other centrally acting drugs
- use for hypertension
- are associated with sympatholytic properties
- have the opposite function of alpha blockers, they mimic the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine signaling in the heart , smooth muscles and central nervous system, with norepinephrine being the highest affinity.
nitrates and nitroglycerin
angina, vasodilator in chronic heart failure
calcium channel blockers(nondihydropyridines)
- use for angina, hypertension, increasing av block to slow ventricular response in arterial fibrillation, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, headache.
- chemical that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels
- particularly affective against large vessels stiffness, one of the common causes of elevated systolic blood pressure in elderly patiens.
- often have a high mortality rate over extended period of use
calcium channel blockers (dihydropyridines)
- use for hypertension, angina, neurologic deficits after subarachnoid hemorrhage
- often used to reduce systemic vascular resistance and arterial pressure
- use for chronic heart failure in the setting of dilated cardiomyopathy, increasing of av block to slow ventricular response with arterial fibrillation
- primarily involve the treatmen of cardiac failure
- results from an increased cardiac output by increasing the force of contraction.
- cardiac glycosides increases intracellular calcium, increases calcium induced calcium release and thus contraction
direct peripheral vasodilators
- use for hypertension, hair loss, vasodilation for heart failure.
- medicines that are used to treat conditons that affect blood vessels in peripheral parts of the body such as the arms and legs
- help PAD
angiotensin-converting enzyme(ACE) inhibitors
- use for hypertension, coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure that is due to systolic dysfunction, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, heart attacks, scleroderma, migraine
- block the activity of an enzyme that causes blood vessels to constrict. as a result blood vessels relax and dilate, making it easier for blood to flow through the vessels, which reduces blood pressure
- help prevent backup of blood in the heart and lungs, and decreases the pressure that the hearts left ventricle resistance
ACE inhibitors in combination with diuretics
hypertension, chronic heart failure.
ACE inhibitors in combination with calcium channel blockers
- hypertension, chronic hear failure, angina
- this combination drugs help with high blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors get their blood pressure down.
use for edema. chronic heart failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, certain kidney disorders(kidney stones, diabetes's insipidus, female hirsutism osteoporosis)
class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension and edema caused by heart , liver, or kidney disease.
- diuretic that at on the ascending loop of henle in the kidney. used to treat hypertension and edema often due to congestive heart failure or renal insufficiency.
- more effective in patients with impaird kidney function
- drugs that do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine
- hypertension and management of congestive heart failure
aldosterone receptor blockers (aldosterone receptor antagonist)
- block the effects of aldosterone, therefore decrease sodium reabsorption and water retention by the kidneys and conswquently lead to a decrease in blood pressure
- us to treat hypertension
- specific for drug but include suppression of arterial fibrillation and maintenance of normal sinus rhythm, serious ventricular arrhythmias in certain clinical setting, increase in av nodal block to slow ventricular response in atrial fibrillation
- symptomatic tachycarias and premature beats may be treated
- these drugs either suppress the abnormal firing of pacemaker tissue or depress the transmission of impulses in tissues that either conduct too rapidly.
- use for elevated cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides, low high density lipoproteins, and metabolic syndrome
- promotes a reduction of lipid levels in the blood
blood modifiers(anticoagulant or antiplatelet
use to prevent blood clots, heart attack, stroke, intermittent claudication, or vascular death in patient with established peripheral arterial disease or acute st segment elevation myocardial infraction. also , used to reduce aching, tiredness and cramps in had and feet. plavix is critical to maintain for one year after percutaneous coronary intervention for drug eluting stents patency
- steroidal anti-inflammatory agents
steroidal anti-inflammatory agents
- use for allergy symptoms including sneezing, itching, and runny or stuffed nose shrink nasal polyps, various skin disorder, asthma
- reduce inflammation or swelling by binding to glucocorticoid receptors
- anticholinergics (acetylcholine receptor antagonist)
- anticholiergic with sympathomimets(b2 receptor agonist)- use for chronic obstructive pulmonary lung disease
- xanthine dervatives
- leukotriene antogonists and formation inhibitors
- mast cells stabilizers
- -all prevent wheezing, shortness of breath, and troubled breathing caused y asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung diseases
- is a substance that block the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
- inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the acetylcholine to its receptor in nerve cells
sympathomimetics (beta 2 receptor agonists)
- these drugs act at the postganglionic sympathetic terminal either directly activating postsynaptic receptors, blocking breakdown and reuptake, or stimulation production and release of catecholamine.
- used to treat cardiac arrest and low blood pressure, or even delay premature labor
xanthine derivative or methylxanthines(caffenine
stimulate the central nervous system, produce diuresis, and relax smooth muscles.
leukotriene antagonist formation inhibitors
a drug that inhibits leukotriene, which are fatty compound produced by the immune system that cause inflammation in asthma and bronchitis, and constrict airways
mast cell stabilizers
used to prevent or control certain allergic disorders, they block a calcium channel essential for mast cell degranulation, stabilizing the cell and thereby preventing the release of histamine and related mediators.
- -biguanides( decreases hepatic glucose production and intestinal glucose absorption
- used for type 2 or adult onset diabetes
- - glucosidase inhibitors(inhibit intestinal glucose absorption
- - insulin- type one or sometimes type 2
- meglitinides- stimulate pancreatic islet beta cells
- type 2
- thiazolidinediones- increase insulin sensitivity
- incretin mimetic- increase insulin and decrease glucagon serction
- appetite suppressants
- lipase inhbitors
- -use for morbid obesity and metabolic syndrome