Human Con I Final

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Human Con I Final
2013-12-02 17:14:20
Greek lit

Human Con I Final
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  1. Structure of Greek epics
    • -      
    • Full
    • of formulas in the original

    • o   Ornamental epithets, like “white armed
    • Hera”

    • -      
    • In
    • mid 20th-century, Millman Parry studying Slovic Poetry- the bards
    • would sing long poems

    • o   Claimed it was memorized, but it was
    • different each time- relies on formulas to fill in loose lines

    • o   Use economy and scope to fill in the
    • lines
  2. Who is Homer?
    • -      
    • Dactyl-
    • verse form that grew during the Greek dark ages (1300 BC-800 BC)

    • o   Huge volcano exploded, warring group
    • destroyed/attacked coastal community

    o   Palaces burned, population plummeted

    o   Iliad is a pre-dark age culture

    • o   Clay tablets were found- covered in signs
    • that represented consonetnts and vowels

    • -      
    • Now
    • Phonecian alphabet comes into play around 800 BC

    o   Well-known poets emerge in 600 BC

    • §  But no one really knows who Homer is
    • exactly- place him earlier? (800-700 BC)

    • ·     
    • But very little writing then- so maybe it started orally and then somebody wrote it
    • down. (no one knows the answer)
  3. Greek cosmos
    • beautiful
    • order- Greeks believe in order, causes, what god did what

    • o   Therefore you need to be an accurate
    • reader of your world

    • o   Anything could be a sign
    • Homer
    • is not very specific-say things but don’t do it

    EX: ghost of P tells Achilles "your fate awaits you too, to die"
  4. What is our place in this world, based on the opening lines of the Iliad?
                 Zeus and Gods

                Heroes, Greeks, People

                Feasts for dogs, birds

    • == what is
    • our place?- sometimes we try to be like gods and we act like animals
  5. Relationship between gods and men
    • Preist
    • prays to Apollo and he directly answers him

    • -      
    • Gods
    • don’t work together- they work for their own interest

    • -      
    • Formulaic-
    • what sacrifices to do

    • o   Chryses tells Apollo I’ve done X, so you
    • do Y for me= it is a continuing contract

    • -      
    • Gods
    • are changeable, hotheaded- they have multiple agendas

    o   Zeus helps Trojans because he owes Thetis

    • -      
    • Scale
    • for gods is different than for men- Hera says “take my three favorite cities,
    • but let me at Troy”- whole cities not a big deal to her

    • -      
    • Gods
    • can be extremely personally involved

    Men try to figure out the patterns of the gods, what they want

    • Shows parallels- world of gods is like
    • the world of people
    • Agg is Zeus- very powerful, but neither
    • is omnipotent
  6. What does it mean to be "divine" or "god-like" in Greek lit?
    • o   Chrisitan- sacrifice, devotion, kindness,
    • charity

    • o   Greek- strong, powerful, Gods are more
    • like humans or superheroes

    • §  Paris- selfish, childlike, yet described
    • as “magnificent” like a god

    §  == you can aspire to be a god
  7. Similes of Homer (basic structure)
  8. o   Always has a primary point of contact but
    then supplementary info- how much of that seeps into the comparison?
  9. Greek belief in afterlife
    Every Greek believes in a soul

    o   Underworld is a nasty, boring place

    • o   Therefore you think about the fame you
    • will have after you die, not where you’re going- kleos (you can have either
    • kleos or nostos, but not both unless you’re Odysseus)

    • All
    • are going to face death, Underworld is not a great place, so you have 2
    • choices:

    o   Apathy

    • o   Seize the day- use this as a motivator
    • rather than an oppressor
  10. Simosieus simile in the Iliad- how does Homer construct it, what does it show?
    born on the banks of Simoeis river

    o   Young and unmarried

    o   Falls like a tree chopped down

    • o   Cost of war- greif to wife or children,
    • but in his case, he did not have any children

    • §  Greeks were always acutely aware of the
    • deep cost of war- did not send many out- huge battles rare bc life is so
    • precious (vs. The Romans in the Punic Wars)

    • o   Tree felled has future use- can be turned
    • into a chariot by an artisan

    • §  == Homer turns death into beauty of the
    • Iliad

    • o   Tree is cut down by a river, tree is a
    • sapling= simosius

    • o   == indirect ways lit can work to tell its
    • truth
  11. What started this whole fight with Troy, and how does it come full circle?
    • Golden apple was given to Paris- told to give it to the goddess who is the fairest of
    • them all, and he gives it to Aphrodite (who helps him get Helen)- why Hera and
    • Athena are pissed at him

    • o   Happened at wedding of Peleus and Thetis-
    • Achilles’ parents

    o   Ares not invited b/c he has no discord

    IN the end, Patrocolous asks to be buried in the same urn with Achilles- it is the urn that Thetis received at this wedding
  12. Flyte
    • -  contention; what guys do before fight, throw
    • insults- gets adrenaline up

    • Ex:  Homer,
    • to give Hector time to get back to the city, uses the interaction between
    • Diomedes and Glaucas

    Ex: Between O and Irus

    EX: in Ajax play over the corpse- small; petty- this is the post-Iliadyic world
  13. Hector's 3 encounters in Troy in book 6
    * Fairy tale structure (3 tasks and a climax

    • 1.  Mother- gives her instructions from gods
    • to pray to Athena, but she rejects it

    2.  Brother and Helen

    3.   His wife and son

    §  Discussion about what he should do

    §  This scene makes Hector feel less selfish

    • ·     
    • Hector
    • is the modern hero, Achilles more classic

    • §  == But Hector can’t stay b/c the Trojans
    • will lose if he does not fight
    •        === Both Achilles and Hector face tragic choices

    Sweet moment- son is afraid of his father's epithet
  14. Shame culture v. guilt culture
    • o   Greece/Troy is a shame culture- what will
    • people think?

    • §  Only do things if you think you can get
    • away with it
  15. Fires and stars simile (Book 8)
    • Fires
    • are numerous at night like stars in the sky for shepherds

    o   Peace v. war

    o   What guides you
  16. Achilles' speech in book 9
    • -      
    •  Uses similes- rare for a character to use- he
    • is a good public speaker

    • -      
    • Sees
    • ulterior motives of Agg- gifts aren’t enough, you have to satisfy the heart
    • (Nestor knew this).

    • -      
    • Achilles
    • knows he has two choices:

    1.     Stay and get kleos (glory), but die

    2.      Leave and get life but not glory

    • a.     At this point, Achilles says he is going
    • to choose the second option, that the kleos is not worth it; he will go back,
    • but we know there is a cost

    • -      
    • Phoneix
    • is like Nestor- uses mythology to show moral paradigms, create a story

    • -      
    • Patrocolus
    • also works hard to help Achilles, convince him
  17. Why do people think that Book 10 of the Iliad is a late addition?
    • In
    • books 1-9: wear armor, helmets, etc.

    • o   Here: in animal skins, Ody wears a boar’s
    • tooth helmet- doesn’t show up anywhere else

    o   == clothing is very feral

    • -      
    • Confrontation
    • w/ Diomedes and Ody and Dolon- thinking, no fighting, wit and deception v.
    • spears

    • -      
    • All
    • at night- fighting stops at night in all other books

    • -      
    • Agg
    • wants to show respect, do work- totally different than he is in other books

    o   P 280: respectful to Nestor

    • -      
    • Homer
    • gives us the backstory of the helmet of p. 285

    o   Ody grandfather has wolf name

    o   Helmet was stolen at night

    • -      
    • Pace
    • picks up throughout the book, giving it a different feel

    o   Homer does love to vary the pace
  18. World of women and children in the Iliad similes
    - The way Aphrodite flicks off an arrow like a mother flicking a fly off of her sleeping child

    • - Compare pains of war to labor pains
    • - Use simile about a widow- army, war is the thing that makes the widow
    • ==These are the things they are fighting for- life, not death
    • ****Can see in how the epic ends- not in a battle but with women mourning
  19. Nature similes in Book 11
    -Armies slash down bodies like grains of wheat- numerousness; ease

    Woodsmen simile- he gets tired of cutting down the wood, but the warriors are tireless
  20. Why poetry is so important
    Gods will eventually wipe out the physical traces of war, but this poetry will preserve it
  21. Rocks and snow similes in Book 12
    o   Numerousness

    • o   Snow is quiet, but rocks are not- the din
    • of battle

    • o   Softness of snow v hardness of rocks
    • catches your attention

    o   334- blizzard is Zeus’ weaponry of war

    • ***Takes
    • similar similes and plays with him, to reemphasize points for the listener- how
    • it was originally done***
  22. Patrocolus' fight in book 16
    • Patrocolus’
    • takes Achilles armor- he will dies in it

    • -      
    • In
    • Book 1, his mom is mourning over Achilles, fate of short life- passing on this
    • fate w/ the armor

    • o   P and him joint being- we do not get
    • Achilles’ death, so this is the closest we have

    • -      
    • Achilles
    • gives P specific instruction, tells him not to do too much, not to fight Hector

    • -      
    • At
    • the moment you die, everyone else is outliving you- fantasy on p. 415 is the
    • opposite of 

    • Patrocolus
    • always the most sympathetic character, but war brings out his savagery

    • -      
    • Apollo
    • knocks P’s helmet off

    • -      
    • Hecotr
    • imagines what Achilles’ last words wuldbe- gets it wrong (p 440).

    • -      
    • P’s
    • last word is “Achilles”

    • -      
    • Only
    • important guys talk and they are dying

    • -      
    • Homer
    • addresses P directly

    • -      
    • Hector
    • puts on Achilles’ armor- like he’s putting on death

    o   Zeus packs him tightly into his fate

    • -      
    • Homer’s
    • use of immortal horses- tragedy of immortality

    • o   Horses are like a grave stele only thing
    • moving is flow of tears

    • -       Anticholus
    • takes the place of P

    • o  
    • Has to hold Achilles’ hands to keep him
    • from committing suicide
  23. Achilles' shields
    • Opposites-
    • what cultural anthropologists love to do

    • -      
    • Structuralism

    • o   Sun, Moon and Stars (up) v. Earth and Sea
    • (down)

    o   War and peace

    o   ** Culture v. nature***

    • §  Different cultures divide things up
    • differently

    • o   Ploughing and reaping= culture working on
    • nature

    • -      
    • Choral
    • dance- what Homer closes w/; pure culture

    • -      
    • Bands
    • moving up

    • -      
    • City
    • of peace v. city of war, city of peace has trial- there are still bad things,
    • but they are controlled

    • o   Everything is a contest, even judges
    • competing for verdict

    • -      
    • P
    • 486- Linus song by youth- end  of year,
    • death of year

    • o   Too young to really know death, but the
    • other people get it

    • -      
    • Everything
    • is in the shield

    • o   Shows the world where we live, what
    • you’re fighting for

    • o   OR is it that he is dragging these things
    • into war w. him?

    • -      
    • There
    • are no gods on this shield

    • -      
    • The
    • artist is thinking about what he does- shield as a stand-in for art of the poet

    • -      
    • Like
    • Helen’s tapestry
  24. Zeus' reaction to death of Sarpedon
    • Sometimes
    • gods seem not to care, but then some pockets where they are like
    • judeo-christian (p 425).

    o   Zeus wants to save his son, Sarpedon

    • o   Gods can be tragic when it involves people,
    • when it is just them together it is comedic
  25. Book 19- Achilles' mourning
    Achilles clings to P’s corpse

    • -      
    • Anger
    • of Achilles is not going away

    • -      
    • Corpse
    • is given ambrosia and nector- in indo euro culture is well-known to eep death
    • away

    • -       Briseis
    • makes a speech of lament for Patrcolus

    • -       Greif
    • of men and women are similar- something schematic- 2 halves of one thing

    • o  
    • When we mourn for Patrcolus, we mourn
    • for everyone

    • -      
    • Death
    • and how we deal with it- huge theme of the human condition-nin war there is
    • death all around

    • -      
    • Achilles
    • won’t eat- Athena gives him ambrosia and nector

    o   Unites w. P

    o   Achilles is basicallt already a corpse

    • -      
    • Achilles’
    • horse predicts his death
  26. Hector's decesion to fight
    • People
    • are begging Hector to come back

    • -      
    • If
    • Hector dies the city will fall

    • -       Hector
    • goes into this surreal state- debate w. himself (p 545)

    His wife does not realize he died at first- horrible thing she imagined in Book 6 came true
  27. Funeral games for Patrocolus
    • Funeral
    • games very different in tone

    • o   Homer varies pace and tone throughout-
    • already had a lot of violence

    o   Still competition

    • -      
    • “Share
    • the prizes”- a lot kore cooperation than in the beginning- everything is evened
    • out, smooths over

    • o   Achilles here is mediator v the fighter-
    • preparing us for a different Achilles in Book 24

    • -      
    • Visit
    • each of the characters again- like saying goodbye bc not going to see in Book
    • 24

    • -      
    • 1st
    • contest is chariot race

    • o   Chariots are tiny, flimsy, w. four very
    • powerful horses

    o   Anticholus becomes like P

    • -      
    • Achilles
    • tries to rearrange prizes and A fights it- like Book 1

    o   Achilles sees himself in him

    • -      
    • No
    • matter how huge the humans are, they are just human
  28. What is the real thing that needs to be killed in the Iliad?
    = The rage of Achilles (first lines)
  29. At the end, how are Achilles and Priam united?
    • Need
    • to bring Achillea nd Priam together- both are grieving

    • o   Ex: both have connection between grief
    • and anger- say things you never mean (Priam says he wishes all his other sons
    • were dead)

    • o   Achilles’ rage started over a prize, but
    • it really is about the death

    o   Priam and Achilles meet

    • §  Priam kneels down- uses theme of father
    • and sons; “kissing the and that killed my son”

    • -      
    • Chain
    • of empathy, pity, grief

    • -      
    • Knows
    • Priam couldn’t have gotten there on his own, knows there must be divine backing

    • -      
    • P
    • 607- why Achilles does not want Priam to see his son- he does not want Priam to
    • freak out bc he might freak out

    o   Has to empathize w Priam

    o   Sympathy

    • -      
    • P
    • 608- men have to eat- he insists to Priam like his men insited to him

    • -      
    • Women
    • are impt in similes

    o   Close w three women moruning

    • -      
    • Rage,
    • anger, failureto emphathize- all comes back and is buried

    • -      
    • End
    • at human momet and not sack of Troy- not about the nature of war but the nature
    • of humans

    • -      
    • They
    • bury Hector, but its like rage is buried
  30. What do Greeks know about death?
    You cannot escape it, so you have to deal with it
  31. The Odyessy- overview
    • Comedy-
    • hero does have good choices, task is achievable

    • -      
    • Tragedy
    • about funeral, comedy about weddings

    • -      
    • First
    • great comedy

    • -      
    • Very
    • self-aware of tragedy and the Iliad

    • -      
    • Odysseus
    • gets long life and fame- normally you have to choose

    • -      
    • Less
    • similes, indents them- each is like a little poem within the poem

    • -      
    • Major
    • and minor plot points

    o   O’s son is a mini O

    • -      
    • What
    • is valued here is being able to read the situation, see when someone is trying
    • to deceive you

    • -      
    • Greek
    • words for past and future are upposite of what we think

    o   Past- ahead of you, can see it

    o   Future- behind you, sneaks up, cant see

    • -      
    • More
    • self-conscious than the Iliad

    • -      
    • Opening
    • is like The Iliad- “Speak Memory”

    • -      
    • “Tell
    • the tale to us, in our time”- no point in epics if we don’t relate to them

    • -      
    • O is
    • the “only” one to not get back home- obviously others don’t have died, but from
    • O’s perspective….

    • -      
    • Nostos=
    • return of the heroes

    • o   Nostalgia= pain, longing for return,
    • aches

    • -      
    • On
    • page 2 we get the story of Agg and Orestes

    • o   Set up the folly of suitors- the jerks
    • deserved it!

    • -      
    • Zues
    • says about O “no other mortal has a mind like his”

    o   Always competitive in Greek culture

    §  Very concerned with the intellectual

    • -       Tel
    • is acute psychologically for the journey he is going to take- we see on p 4 he
    • has already prepped in his head

    • o  
    • P 5- shows selfish and unselfish
    • grounds

    • -      
    • Singers
    • present- self aware about art

    • -      
    • Has
    • its eye on the Iliad, makes sure not totell the same episode twice

    • -      
    • Telemachus
    • wants to be like Orestes

    • -      
    • People
    • always want something new

    • -      
    • Relationship
    • with mom is sweet but strained

    • -      
    • Eurycleia
    • and Eurimes- Tel’s servants

    o   Eu= good

    o   Servants of O usually high born

    o   They are like Juliet’s nursemaid

    o   Makes you feel the youngness of T

    • -      
    • This
    • is a bildungsroman
  32. Penelope's weaving trick
    • Penelope’s weaving trick= metaphor for fate and control, her trying to control her fate
    • against the suitors- it is the Fates that weave

    Circe also weaves, so does Helen- that is what a clever woman does

    • Ultimately, women are opressed bc thought to be dangerous, too smart
    • - Helen w/ the omen
  33. Greek manners
    In Greek culture, you do not ask who someone is until you have given them food and drink

    Nestor, the swineherd, etc. does this but the Cyclops does not- epitome of uncivilized
  34. Tel at Nestor's house
    • Sun
    • goes up, then sun goes down- everyday this daily cycle is like a miracle

    • -      
    • T
    • arrives at Nestor’s house during a religious festival

    • -      
    • Nesotr
    • asks Athena, in disguise, to pray to her rival Poseiden and she does so

    • -      
    • In
    • Greek culture, you do not ask who someone is until you have given them food and
    • drink and this is done here

    • -      
    • Lots
    • of storytelling- what the odyessy is about

    • o   Tell story of Agg’s wife again- she had
    • been left in care of the singer, whom she began an affair with

    • -      
    • T
    • sleeps next to Pesistraus, Nesotr’s son- becomes like a road trip; the two
    • young men soon become very close
  35. Story of Trojan horse in Ody- what does it say about Ody?
    • Tells
    • the story of the Trojan horse

    • o   When the men were in it she imitated the
    • voice of each one of their wives to try and get them out

    • §  O is the one that exercises caution and
    • control, keep men from yelling out

    o   Narratives w/in narratives
  36. Role of gods in the Ody
    Less clear-cut than in the Iliad

    Focuses more on O's resourcefulness, intelligence of man rather than intervention of gods
  37. Ody on the island with Calypso
    • Move
    • into more folktale material

    • -      
    • Look
    • at O life as a “captive” on the island with Calypso

    • -      
    • Hermes
    • goes to visit C

    o   Obviously did not want to come

    o   Never uses O’s name

    • -      
    • P
    • 73- feminism in the gods

    o   Dawn

    • o   Don’t see the goddesses interactions as much
    • especially in romantic ones with humans

    • -      
    • Apo=
    • un calypso=covering therefore Calypso is the uncovering, revelation

    • -       O
    • has amazing control even when Calypso tells him she is sending him home
  38. Nausicaa
    • Naucissca-
    • Athena comes to her in a dream, she already has marriage on her mind, tells her
    • she should wash her clothes to make sure men will like her

    • -       N
    • is like Artemis

    • -      
    • O
    • relies on his skill in speech to win her over

    • -      
    • O
    • and N imagine joy of marriage in very different ways- set of words evoke
    • different realities

    • -      
    • Poem
    • love intelligence

    • o   N tells O she does not want him to walk
    • into town behind her- puts idea of marriage in their convo

    • o   Lets him say he is handsome, say shes a
    • virgin (93)

    • -      
    • T’s
    • journey in books 1-4 is a preparation for O’s story

    • o   How O arrives at palace in book 7-
    • parallel

    Never mentions her to his wife
  39. Connections between O and T's story
    - Both arrive at palaces in awe, during religious cermony

    • - Both cry at stories of Troy
    • == O cries like a woman who has lost her husband.... what he did in the war- brings it full circle, winners and losers both shed tears
  40. Story of Ares and Aphrodite told at home of Phaecians
    • -      
    • Story
    • of infidelity in the marriage bed- spooky foreshadowing- exactly what O does
    • not want to be happening

    o   O will do test w marriage bed

    • o   Poem values intelligence, cleverness-
    • what Hermes used
  41. Underworld scene of the Ody
    • Chaotic
    • underworld scene- no settled theological pictures, so it is a hodgepodge of
    • things

    • -      
    • Ody
    • learned that his mom died out of grief

    • -      
    • This
    • book is the catalog genre, like the catalog of ships in the Iliad, this is a
    • catalog of women

    • -      
    • Here
    • Agg’s story again- tells to Ody who is going home to his wife

    • -      
    • P
    • 172- O w. Achilles- says he’d rather be a slave alive than a blessed dead man

    • -      
    • Ajax
    • won’t talk to O- Ajax killed himself over anger at O
  42. Book 17 of Ody
    • As
    • Iliad increases the violence throughout, the Odyssesy increases the cleverness

    • o   Says he aklways talks straight but he is
    • lying

    • -      
    • Penelope
    • is like Artemis (chastity) and Aphrodite (beauty)

    • -      
    • Melan=
    • dark, evil; Melanthis, Melantho

    • -      
    • Dog
    • Argas- How moved O is just to get back to his dog, channels his emotions into
    • questions

    o   Dog dies right after it sees its master
  43. Book 18- O tries to win his wife's trust
    o   Gradually bring O and P together

    o   Both complain about Melantho

    • -      
    • Irony-
    • Penelope asks O where he is from

    • -      
    • Uses
    • his name in addressing his wife

    • -      
    • Opposite
    • of Cyclops

    • -      
    • Trying
    • to win her trust before he lies

    • -      
    • 296
    • simile- spring is coming; winter of her grief will melt and turn to spring

    • -      
    • 297
    • and 298

    • o   Describes things P gave him- she made the
    • cloth

    o   Descibres the brooch

    • o   Talks about Eurybates- “held in high
    • esteem bc they thought alike”- what O values

    • -      
    • First
    • speech supposed to give credibility to second speech- gets her in trusting mode

    • -      
    • Life
    • is short, and we are all going to die so we earn honor through hospitality

    • -      
    • Maid
    • bathing O- sees scar

    o   Tells story of boar, like freeze frame

    • o   Story is in her mind bc she heard it over
    • and over from him

    • P
    • can’t sleep and netiher can O- connects them
  44. Stringing of the bow
    None of the suitors can do it

    O does it with ease- it is his tool, like pen is tool of the artist
  45. P and O reconciliation
    • Penelope
    • is cautious like her husband- bringing the two together

    • o   Still has a lot of emotion to fight, like
    • O- makes it more interesting

    • -      
    • Simile
    • p 358

    • -      
    • Marriage
    • bed as test- symbol of love

    • -      
    • Simile
    • p 360- coonects P and O, what literally happened to him happened to her
    • metaphorically

    • -      
    • Doesn’t
    • mention N to his wife
  46. The slaughter of the suitors
    Takes out suitors in waves

    • -      
    • Soothsayer
    • Leodes- still trying to make his last speech

    • -      
    • Guys
    • who make a living using their voice survive

    • -      
    • Simile
    • p 348

    • -      
    • Bad
    • serving women have to clean up the bodies then are hanged
  47. Ending of the Ody
    • Like
    • Book 10 of Iliad- artistically different

    • -      
    • Laertes
    • and O- fathers and sons theme

    • -      
    • Final
    • battle has all 3 generations

    • -      
    • Lots
    • of little endings

    • -      
    • 2nd
    • trip to Underworld

    o   helps round off things from Iliad
  48. Chorus in Greek plays
    • Chorus
    • is very important in the Greek plays

    • o   Used to be no more than 3 actors on stage
    • in Greek- use different masks

    • o   Chorus stays on stage the whole time,
    • always a group of people who are not very important, people wouldn’t believe
    • them, cause they are witnessing some crazy stuff

    • o   Choruses are in Doric (Greek of the
    • Spartans) v the Ionic of other actors

    • -      
    • Song
    • and dance but very serious
  49. Ritual of the Greek plays
    • Plays
    • normally presented in a contest- agon

    o   Main guy was prot- agon

    • o   Apply to the city, gov’t picks three
    • playwrights a year and you are subsidized

    o   Done at festivals

    • §  Need to have ritual- but the playwrights
    • put their own spin on them

    • -      
    • 10
    • main tribes in Athens, each tribe picks a judge

    • o   10 votes are taken, but you randomly
    • throw half the votes away

    • -      
    • Most
    • people in the audience have performed in a play at some point- very aware
    • audience, it is a shared cultural experience

    • -      
    • Plays
    • not meant for re-performance

    • -      
    • At
    • the time this play was performed, writers were still doing plays in trilogies

    o   Following plays look at son, etc.

    o   4th play that is a satire
  50. Opening of Agg
    • -      
    • The
    • guard- opening orients you to the s 
    • He
    • has to watch every night

    • -      
    • Bonfires
    • on mountains- get news to someone quickly

    • -      
    • Stars

    o   Can read the constellations

    • o   “armies of the night”- waiting like him
    • to hear about rise and fall

    o   “blazing king”- what hes looking for

    o   New season= when Troy has fallen
  51. How the guard describes Cly
    • -      
    • She
    • maneuvers like a man”

    o   Women’s man-planning heart

    • -      
    • Guard
    • says that there are stories to be told that are tough to tell- he knows?
  52. Yoke of Atreus
    The two sons of Atreus

    Culture of connections- holds together
  53. Simile with the hare and babies
    • Flashback
    • to 10 years ago

    o   Their nest has been robbed of Helen

    §  Helen wasn’t their child…

    • o   Metaphor simile- birds fly like
    • their ships “rowing their wings”

    • o   Wedding imagery and blood imagery next to
    • each other- foreshadowing?

    o   10 year marriage of death

    §  Blood rites in a wedding

    • -      
    • Greek
    • choruses tend to be old men, slaves, subordinates

    • o   Hear everything- have to be too weak to
    • intervene

    • -      
    • Start
    • singing in lyric of Homer- shows that they are telling a Homeric story

    • o   OMEN- 
    • 2 eagles devour a pregnant hare

    • §  Eagles are kings- Agg and Priam- this is
    • the sack of Troy

    • §  Upsets Artemis- she loves animals, but
    • this also represents the slaughter of women and children that will occur in 10
    • years- upset over something that has not happened yet but it will happen

    • -      
    • ==
    • Therefore, Artemis will need another victim- Ag daughter

    o   Beautifully prowed lips- like the boat

    • -      
    • Ag
    • starts to pray- casts a wide net to Zeus- pathei mathos- law of Zeus- learning
    • comes through suffering

    • o   Use imagery again of the boats- Zeus is
    • on a boat

    • -      
    • Puts
    • on yoke of fate on 110- bound to what is going to happen (yoke is a recurring
    • theme- connections, etc.)

    • -      
    • Ag
    • is like the vultures- also lost a child, nest was robbed from (this goes back
    • to the Helen-robbed-from-nest idea before… Ag WILL lose a daughter to this war)

    o   Prepayment for Troy
  54. Fire beacons in Ag
    • -      
    • Cly
    • describes the beacon

    • o   She becomes the fire that travels- she
    • will be the agent of destruction here

    o   Lights fire on the altar

    • o   First fire is Troy burning- last fire is
    • Cly’s destruction- full circle

    • -      
    • Watchman
    • will get first good night’s sleep in ten years- mirrors the men at Troy
  55. Nets of equivalencies in Ag
    === culture of connections

    • -      
    • Anti-war
    • passage- p 119

    o   In place of men comes back ashes and urns

    • §  Size- very different in size but are equivalent
    • in matter, what tye stand for- like using a little bit of gold for a big cow,
    • it is a mattr of density

    • o   **** Not a pro war culture- everyone is
    • grumbling

    • -      
    • Other
    • nets of equivalencies:

    o   Hare and babies of Troy

    • o   Fire and beacons and destructive force of
    • Cly

    o   Men and ashes

    o   Helen and daughter

    • -      
    • Prows
    • go out, prows come back
  56. Opposite equivalencies in Agg
    • Funeral
    • and wedding- paris marries Helen as solidiers prepare to die

    The news Cly waits for v. the news other wives fear for
  57. Tapestry in Agg
    • -      
    • Rolls
    • out tapestry- “justice, leading him in”- to her, it’s the blood of her daughter
    • the innocent Trojans- his death in there will be the justice he faces for
    • killing her daughter

    • o   Cly uses masculine logic to get him to
    • walk down- like the watchmen said about her in the beginning, she has a mannish
    • heart, way of thinking

    §  Peitho=persuasion

    • ·     
    • Pithou=
    • “trust me”

    • ·     
    • ===
    • persuasuion leads him to death; normally it is a good thing, a necessary thing
  58. Cassandra
    • Cassandra
    • has been silent this whole time

    • o   Apollo fell in love with her and when she
    • broke up with him her punishment is that she is still a seer but no one will
    • ever believe her

    • -      
    • Cassandra
    • speaks in a poetic, prophetic way, mentions whole family

    • o   Brothers had quarreled- Atreus served his
    • brother a meat pie made of his children

    • §  The only one of those children to survive
    • was Aegisthus, who is now Cly’s lover

    • -      
    • “womb
    • of guilt”= violence gives birth to violence

    • -      
    • We
    • never get to see the violence only how Cassandra predicts it

    • -      
    • Previosuly
    • the lines have been linear structured, but now Cas jumps back and forth

    • -      
    • All
    • these patterns, cosmos

    o   Vertical set of equivalencies

    • §  Rabbit and young- looks forward to Troy,
    • back to Thyestas children

    • -      
    • ==
    • so where does Cassandra stand in this set of equivalencies? (LIVING SIMILES)

    • o   Woman sacrificed to begin war (Ag’s
    • daughter), she is woman sacrificed to end war, and this whole war revolves
    • around a woman- Helen

    §  Bookends stories

    §  Pattern

    • -      
    • Nets
    • of meaning
  59. Ending of Ag
    • Cly exalts
    • over the corpse

    o   “Rowing benches”

    o   p 161- nets

    o   Says Zeus is beneath the ground- blasphemous

    o   161- murder gives her new life

    • §  Perversion of spring- should be life
    • bringing and it brings death

    • §  Dark blood v clear rain- blood pollutes
    • and rain purifies

    • §  Inversion of sex she penetrates him (LIKE
    • A MAN) to being new life

    §  Savage lyricism
  60. Similaries between Iliad and Ajax
    • Tragedy-
    • deep human suffering

    • -      
    • Scene
    • w. Hector and Andromache, Ajax and his son

    • -      
    • Battle
    • of corpse of P v Battle of corpse for Ajax

    • -      
    • Ajax
    • lost the battle for Achilles’ armor

    o   He does not get the glory

    • o   Pride has been wounded= like Achilles- in
    • losing the Achilles contest, he actually becomes more like Achilles- refuses food and drink like Achilles did; Achilles' prize was wronfully taken as Ajax's was
  61. Ajax and his family
    • Termessa speech like Andromeche- she will
    • be taken into slavery when he dies; both women were right

    • -      
    • Named
    • son Euriscies= broad shield

    o   What he passes on to him
  62. Ajax's speech
    • Speech
    • Ajax makes is a deception speech- sounds like he will get through it, but
    • really it is a suicide speech

    • o   Will hide sword not in ground but in his
    • body

    • o   Listing all the things you have to do to
    • live in this world- friend could be foe, etc- basically saying all the reason
    • he wants to die
  63. How Ajax play changes after the chorus leaves
    • Post
    • Illiadyc- world of Iliad was when chorus leaves; now it has become our world
    • today

    • o   Fight over corpse is smaller, bc we are
    • in a world of change and compromise

    §  Ody is compromiser

    • §  At some point, we will all be corpses and
    • need to be buried

    • -      
    • Cooperation
    • here is rendered a little bit easier- there are plusses and minuses

    • -      
    • Use
    • characters that exist to tell new stories- preserves the past but deepens your
    • own work, how you talk to people

    o   Show it, not say 

    • -      
    • Greeks
    • are at home in the world of heroes, but it is not the real world

    o   Real life is not always so pretty

    o   Alludes to a whole set of superheroes

    o   Humans will all be corpses one day

    • §  Athena delights in Ajax’s pain, v Ody
    • pity- Athena is different here- like people, gods are different in different
    • situations (think of Patrocolus in battle)
  64. Current events in realtion to Philocetes
    • When
    • this play was written, the Pel war had been going on for 20 years, people were
    • exhausted

    §  High stakes!!
  65. How is Philocetes Homeric?
    Pride of Phil v Pride of Achilles- both times it almost kills them
  66. Arc of Philocetes
    • -      
    • Normally,
    • tragedies start on worst day

    o   Oedipus- starts high then goes down

    • o   For Philocetes we start at what seems
    • like the lowest point

    • §  P. asked N. how war is going- seems like
    • all the good people are dead, all the ones he hates alive

    • ·     
    • ==keeps
    • going lower!

    • §  Then, N lifts him up, then betrays him-
    • up-and-down arc

    • o   Then dues ex machine- “god of the
    • machine”- god comes down from sky and changes the ending

    • §  an unexpected power or
    • event saving a seemingly hopeless situation, esp. as a contrived plot device in
    • a play or novel.
  67. The Bow in Philocetes
    • -      
    • Emblem- like a symbol but bigger and fuzzier, more than one
    • thing

    • o   Many layers- like an actual
    • character

    • -      
    • Objective symbol- power

    • o   For him, its means of
    • survival

    • o   For N&O, its power to
    • take down Troy

    • -      
    • More subjective symbol- trust and friendship

    • o   When N takes it and gives
    • it back

    • o   Also nobility/honor- but
    • only when you DON’T have the bow do you have honor (when N gives it back)

    • -      
    • Its
    • Heracles’ bow- P earned it through a great act of courage, sympathy- he was the
    • only one who would put Heracles out of his pain
  68. How would the characters of Philocetes wear their masks?
    • -      
    • How
    • would these characters where their masks?

    o   Philocetes- pain, lines, wrinkles

    • o   Ody- strong, stern, commander, gets the
    • job done

    o   Nep- ideal young boy
  69. Ody in Philocetes
    • -      
    • Ody
    • not as clearly heroic in this play

    o   2 sides to this story tho

    • §  Logical- cant lose Troy (compare w war
    • going on while writing this)

    • §  But moral- how far do you betray your
    • principles, your humanity, for war?

    • -      
    • One
    • small old man against a whole world, but it ends up ebing a formidable fight
  70. Nep in Philocetes
    • -      
    • Nep
    • hasn’t been at Troy as long- Ody asks him to turn his soul over for just a day

    • -      
    • P
    • almost shoots Ody, but Nep grabs his hand, which is an incredibly brave gesture
    • for such a young man

    • -      
    • P
    • has been affecting Nep

    • o   Heracles helps him to see that- has to
    • bring bow bc the Greeks need it to win the Trojan war
  71. Ending of Philocetes
    • -      
    • There
    • is a connection, line of sympathy running throughout the whole play

    • -      
    • Shows
    • how hard it is to engineer human cooperation

    o   Young men- idealistic

    o   Old men- been through a lot, stubborn

    o   Generals- just trying to get Troy

    • o   === it is so hard, you need something
    • supernatural to tip the sclaes back

    • §  Pride and honor- all men have it, all men
    • don’t want it to be wounded
  72. The Aenid- overview
    • -      
    • Vergil-
    • wrote elegant poems based on Greek models

    • -      
    • He
    • died before the Aenid was done- was supposed to be destroyed

    • -      
    • Vergil
    • combines his native Italian w the Greek conscoiousness

    • -      
    • Makes
    • Aeneus the founder of Rome from the ashes of Troy

    • -      
    • In
    • the Iliad and the Odyessy, everyone basically knows what will happen bc it is a
    • story that has been told so many times

    • o   W/ Vergil, we know what will happen bc of
    • history

    • -      
    • The
    • decades of the Punic war before were disastrous- war continuously for years,
    • Augustus finally brings peace, and that was really valued

    • -      
    • In
    • Latin, but is uses the Greek meter

    o   Not as formulaic as Homer

    • -      
    • Loose
    • iambic pentameter

    • -      
    • Roman
    • equivalencies for Greek gods- mythology works continuously
  73. Gods in the Aenid
    • Much more distant here, uncertainty is introduce early, we don't get conclusions of things
    • Ex: Zeus weighing the scales of fate, but doesn't tell us which way it goes

    Men are ultimate- for example, early similes in the book compare nature to men
  74. Duty of Aeneas, attitude of Romans
    • Aeneas
    • “swift and icy terror”- despite the fact that you have emotion, in Rome, you
    • discipline yourself so it’s like you don’t feel

    • -      
    • P 4
    • buried past- older epic

    • Duty
    • as a Roman, the hard work it took to found it (2)- more important than in
    • Greece
    • Loyal
    • Aeneas, pius Aeneas

    o   = loyal, duty-based

    o   closest thing Vergil has to epithets

    • o   *** Achilles is bound by fate, Aeneas by
    • DUTY
  75. Romans and words
    • -      
    • Aeneas
    • relizes the girl he is talking to is a goddess

    o   Calls himself “devout Aeneas”

    • o   Aeneas and his mom like Thetis and Athena
    • combo

    §  Disguises- love it

    • §  But Romans hate riddles, they want things
    • to be straightforward

    §  Doesn’t want illusions

    • §  Romans are suspicious of the power of
    • words

    Greek riddle w. horse was itself a "Trojan horse"
  76. Aeneas in Book 2
    • ·     
    • At
    • the very end, A leaves burning Troy, carrying his father and son- past is a
    • burden in Rome you must carry

    o   Carries future as well

    • ·     
    • Learn
    • a lot about Aeneas in this book

    • ·     
    • His
    • pietas- fighting for the city, the group, the community

    o   Goes back for his family

    §  Replay of Hecor

    • §  In Homer’s, the child is frightened by
    • the flash of Hector’s helmet, blazing head- here the parents are frightened by
    • baby’s head

    This book is laying to rest the Iliad and moving on to new territory
  77. Trojan horse in the Aenid
    • o   Sinon- Greek, got them to take the horse
    • into Troy

    • §  He said he was the page of Palimendes,
    • convicted of treason bc he said Ody was lying== painting picutres of greeks as
    • evil, what they want to hear

    • ·     
    • ROMANS

    • §  The Trojans pitied him- now that he
    • gained their trust, he convinced them to bring horse in

    • ·     
    • Like
    • in Ody

    • o   Metaphor- looks safe, but there is danger
    • w/in

    §  Sinon’s speech is a Trojan horse

    • ·     
    • Romans
    • hate riddles- particularly nervous about it in speech
  78. Vergilion footnotes
    • ·     
    • Vergilion
    • footnotes- he gets us ready for things he will do

    • o   Seeing ghost of Hector prepares us for a
    • Hector-like scene

    • o   Raging fire of Troy prepares us for
    • raging fire of emotion and passion
  79. Nep in the Aenid
    • ·     
    • Nep
    • is alike and not like his father

    • o   River simile p 38- reference to when
    • Achilles fights the river

    o   Becomes witty, and fierce, savvy in war

    §  Kills Priam at the altar

    §  == wants to feel different from Achilles
  80. Andromeche in Book 3
    • ·     
    • Andromeche
    • give Aeneas’s son a cloak, saying that he is like his son

    • o   Further confirms the comparison of Aeneas
    • to Hector
  81. Abandoned Greek in Book 3
    • ·     
    • On
    • island of the Cyclops we meet a pitiful Greek in rags

    • o   Like Sinon except he has REALLY been
    • abandoned

    o   Easy to be fooled but sometimes true

    o   Taking Greek culture with them?
  82. Aeneas v. Ody with the Cyclops
    Aeneas makes himself and his men keep quiet- more humble than Ody was
  83. Dido falling in love with Aeneas
    • Aeneas
    • doesn’t talk back like Calypso

    o   Speechless

    • ·     
    • Dido
    • has great speech p 75

    o   “You don’t have a real home to go to”

    • o   Aeneas’ response is very Roman, trying to
    • control everything

    §  Says his real love is for his fatherland

    • ·     
    • All
    • these duties he has

    • §  There is other stuff he wants to say but
    • he is Roman- she is the great talker of the pair

    • ·     
    • His
    • men were like the ants that were like people- civilization building

    • ·     
    • “No
    • words found his sympathy”- his fate as a barrier to his ears

    • o   Like a great oak fighting the wind (p.
    • 83)

    o   Tears were in vain

    • o   Roots and leaves reach to hell and
    • heaven, connected to past and present

    o   Leaves fall as tears

    §  World full of tears

    o   Aeneas is not invulnerable- moved a bit

    • ·     
    • Before
    • Dido kills herself she says the curse that will bring the Punic Wars

    • ·     
    • She
    • does not whine, does not act as a victim

    • ·     
    • Says
    • “no fate or justice in death”

    • o   Romans not as involved in cosmos, some
    • things do not seem inevitable

    • Sudden
    • collision- one can keep going, another cannot

    o   Intensity is very high

    • ·     
    • Can’t
    • really pick a side- she is not evil
  84. Funeral games in the Aenid
    • o   Chariot v boat races- simile compares the
    • boats to chariots, says there was never a chariot race like this

    o   Teamwork of boat  indvl nature of chariot

    • o   Cloathus prays to win- piety, devotion of
    • the Romans

    o   Cloak as prize- art w/in art

    • ·     
    • In
    • footrace Nisus slips in sacrificial blood like little Ajax in the Iliad

    o   Pair working together

    o   Blood v mud- Romans more pious

    • ·     
    • Additions
    • of archery- boys military drill- precesion teamwork

    o   Genesis of what armies do!
  85. Underworld in the Aenid
    • ·     
    • Go
    • to Apollo’s temple- Sibyl

    • ·     
    • Hard
    • to know who really believes in gods

    • ·     
    • Story
    • of the Minotaur- caused by a woman driven by too much passion

    • ·     
    • P
    • 119- “you’ll have another war”, another Iliad

    • ·     
    • Vergil
    • imitates Homer’s leaf line (said to be greatest line Homer ever wrote)

    • ·     
    • P
    • 130- area of Hades meant for victims of love

    • o   Dido- won’t speak to Aeneas- switches
    • gender roles

    o   She departs from him as he left her

    o   Like Ajax who won’t talk to Ody

    • o   == can love this scene w/o Greek lit but
    • if you know it its even better

    • ·     
    • His
    • dad is invertoring his descendents- opposite of what most people do w/
    • ancestors

    • ·     
    • Can’t
    • hug his dad’s ghost like mom in Ody

    • ·     
    • Shows
    • Aeneas all of his descendents

    • ·     
    • People
    • don’t want to be in Underworld- like Achilles said in Iliad

    • ·     
    • Aeneas
    • says Greeks maybe better at art, but we are better at RULING
  86. Trojans arrival at Rome
    • ·     
    • P
    • 147-descendents will “fling the earth between their feet and rule it”

    • ·     
    • Romans
    • knocked diversity out of the Medd world

    • ·     
    • All
    • of the elements of Rome are here- Aeneas had his men dig a camp- in Rome,
    • ALWAYS built a camp, no matter how tired

    o   Camp was dug, very systemtatic

    • ·     
    • Where
    • the Latins are living is like a meusam of Roman antiquity

    • ·     
    • Trojan
    • line originally came from Italy- full circle connection
  87. How the battle starts in the Aenid
    • ·     
    • Latinus
    • realizes prophecy and welcomes Aeneas- if it was just up to them two there
    • would be no war

    • ·     
    • Juno
    • goes to Hell to get help- destruction always comes through the female figures

    • ·     
    • Turns
    • Aeneas and his men into the Greeks, Latins into Trojans- they are the men whose
    • ships might get burned

    • ·     
    • Hunt-
    • Aeneas’ son accidently kills tame deer

    • o   All kinds of things can get in the way of
    • peace

    o   == sets up first battle

    • ·     
    • Latinus
    • still trying to calm everyone

    • o   P 161- he is a cliff, not moving but he
    • cannot stop the waters

    • ·     
    • P
    • 162- catalog poetry of Aeneas’ main foes
  88. Evander and Pallas
    o   Settled alongside of Rome

    • o   Romans are very pious people- don’t
    • interrupt the ritual of Hercules

    • o   Aeneas shakes Pallas’ hand- he will
    • become like Patrclcolus

    • §  Evander had once shook Anchises hand-
    • full circle

    • ·     
    • Pallas
    • looks in awe at Aeneas like Evander looked at Anchises

    • ·     
    • Celebrating
    • Hercules- killed a great monster there

    • o   Helps tame the world, make it more
    • civilized- that is being celebrated here

    • ·     
    • Evander
    • gives him tour of what will be future Rome

    • o   Roman civ is founded by the best of Greek
    • civ- modesty, good duty
  89. Aeneas' shield
    • ·     
    • Shield
    • tells whole story of Rome

    • o   Achilles shield is no partic time, all
    • Roman things are datable

    • o   More specific to Aeneas- who can carry it
    • but the man who is destinedto found Rome?- Achilles shield is more generalized

    o   Rome fascinated with its history

    • o   **** Achilles does not know what it all
    • means

    • o   Story of Antony and Cleopatra- Aeneas
    • avoids this by leaving Dido behind

    • o   Ceaser rides into Rome like Aeneas- don’t
    • know it, but is resp for carrying it

    o   Every Roman empathizes with Aeneas

    • o   ***** Ultimately, Greeks are more about
    • grand human themes, Romans are more precise
  90. Book 9 of the Aenid
    • ·     
    • His
    • version of Book 10 of the Iliad- marauding through the night

    • ·     
    • Different
    • type of pair- lovers

    • ·     
    • If
    • it is the Iliad, who is the equivalent of whom?

    • o   At first Turnus seems like Achilles,
    • attacking the walls of Troy

    • o   Then like Hector- threatening to burn the
    • ships

    o   Then like Meneleus- “stolen my wife”

    • o   He says “I don’t need Vulcan’s arms”-
    • saying he is better than Achilles

    • ·     
    • Building
    • of the ships

    o   Immortal- turn into nymphs

    • ·     
    • Set
    • up night council, put on lion’s pelt- setting you up, expecting a happy
    • ending  like in Iliad Book 10

    • ·     
    • Slaughter
    • of enemies-ends up looking like Iliad 10

    • ·     
    • Eurylus
    • all caught up- puts on flashing helmet

    o   Makes you think of Hector?

    • ·     
    • In
    • the end, both killed- Achilles and Patrocolus, related to Aeneas and Patrcolus

    • ·     
    • Terse
    • Roman speeches- right to the point

    • ·     
    • Looking
    • for parallels- 10 settles it with who is who
  91. Who is who in the AEnied (in relation to the Iliad)?
    • ·     
    • If
    • it is the Iliad, who is the equivalent of whom?

    • o   At first Turnus seems like Achilles,
    • attacking the walls of Troy

    • o   Then like Hector- threatening to burn the
    • ships

    o   Then like Meneleus- “stolen my wife”

    • o   He says “I don’t need Vulcan’s arms”-
    • saying he is better than 

    • Aeneas’
    • return is analogous to Achilles’ return

    o   Aeneas= Achilles

    o   Pallas= Patrocolus

    o   *** diff- on field at same time
  92. Pallas' battle and death
    • ·     
    • Pallas
    • lusts after war like Pat does

    • ·     
    • Pallas
    • and Lauces both going to dies

    • ·     
    • Turnus
    • kills Pallas, making him Hector

    • ·     
    • Pallas
    • calls on Hercules- Hercules cries bc he cannot do anything, Zeus talks to him
    • about Sarpedon

    • ·     
    • Turnus
    • puts on Pallas’ armor like Hector did, sealing his fate

    • ·     
    • Runner
    • tells Aeneas Pallas is dead- Vergil is more compact, quickly gets live
    • captives, ready to avenge

    • o   Says that because Pallas is dead, all
    • have to die

    • §  Father and son agree with him- past and
    • present

    • ·     
    • P
    • 231- Aeneas doesn’t flyte
  93. Pallas' funeral
    Aeneas is brokjen emotionally, but he is pious, so he makes sure to still follow his religious duty

    • Treats
    • relationship w Pallas like he would have been his lover if they had more time-
    • Pallas is feminized               

    • o   P 243- likened to a flower that a young
    • girl picked

    o   Gives him Dido’s robes- awks

    o   Horses weep like Patrocolus’ horses
  94. Camilla
    • Camilla
    • is very dear to Diana- we get the story of her childhood, where she was
    • dedicated to Diana

    • o   In the end like a woman, she is
    • distracted by clothes and killed

    • o   Life began with a thrown spear and ends
    • with it

    Not as overly emotional and desructive as other women, but in the end is killed by clothes
  95. End of the Aenied
    • Like
    • fight between Achilles and Hector- Turnus’ would be mother in law begs him not
    • to fight

    • ·     
    • Juno
    • sends T’s divine sister to help him

    • ·     
    • P
    • 283- 2 similes- both like rivers and like fires

    • ·     
    • Jove
    • weighing scale- we do not know what the result is- again, Vergil gives you a
    • Homeric scene but w/o the outcome

    • ·     
    • Deal
    • w. Juno and Jove- explains why Romans speek Latin

    • ·     
    • P
    • 295- Turnus plays the father-son card

    • o   Aeneas may have let him live but then he
    • sees Pallas’ belt

    • ·     
    • Various
    • ways to look at this end

    • o   Not supposed to be?- Vergil died before
    • finished

    • o   Aeneas usually so controlled suddenly
    • becomes very enraged finally like Achilles
  96. Sonnets- overview
    • ·     
    • When
    • read as a continuous whole, the context becomes clear, development can be seen

    • ·     
    • Later
    • sonnets become increasingly psychologically deep- he has many issues with love


    • ·     
    • 3
    • main story points:

    o   Telling young man to get married

    o   In love with young man

    o   Then in love w/ dark lady

    §  Subplot- dark lady falls for young man
  97. Young man and marriage
    • o   You will be old, your son will carry your
    • beauty on

    • o   It is ok for ugly people to not have
    • children, but you are making the whole world a widow by not getting married

    • o   Spending everything on yourself kills you
    • in the end
  98. Love affair with young man
    • does not realize this at first

    o   Compares him to a summer’s day; he is his muse, his style

    • o   He is not doing the poetry for profit, he
    • is doing it for his love!!

    o   Big thing is beauty/truth & eye/heart

    §  Beauty is external, truth internal

    • §  Holds the man in his heart, but he can
    • only paint what his eyes can see- he is limited

    • o   As love crumbles, he psychologically
    • comes up with defense mechanisms to make himself feel better

    • §  Ex: says young man’s falseness is the
    • worst thing that has happened since Eve bit the apple- projection, being over
    • the top-sadness makes you say silly things

    • o   Other poets write about him- Will says he
    • is the best, the only one that really cares

    • §  Does not compare him to flowers b/c he is
    • better than flowers

    • o   He wants to lock up his treasure, keep it
    • safe, but he does not have physical control over the young man like a peice of jewelry

    • o   Theme of time- first 120 sonnets said
    • their love will live beyond time, but in 120 says time will ravage the young
    • man

    §  No ending couplet- lacks conclusion
  99. Dark lady affair
    • o   Biologically and socially easier
    • realationship

    • o   There is a lot more focus on her
    • physicality

    • o   Says dark used to be evil but she made it
    • pretty

    • o   130 is “anti-sonnet”- she is not perfect,
    • but he sees her beauty, not everyone does

    • o   Says she is pretty on the outside
    • (beauty) but ugly on the inside (lack of truth)- says “if you pity me, you will
    • be pretty on the inside too!”

    • o   Becomes vulgar when she is promiscius,
    • gets w/ young man

    • o   Eye-heart- he sees beauty but also the
    • ugliness, but is still drawn in by his heart- sadomasochism?

    • o   Warns her to be nice or he will write bad
    • things

    • o   Angel/devil tale- young man is angel, she
    • is devil, her darkness is no longer pretty

    • §  But he somehow still loves her- love has
    • blinded him

    • o   3rd to last poem is dark- she
    • is a betrayal of what he loves most- the poetic art
  100. To the Lighthouse- overview
    • § 
    • Woolfe
    • had Physical and mental issues

    • § 
    • Each
    • of her novels are constructive, experimental

    • § 
    • Mrs.
    • Ramsey is like Woolf’s own mother

    • § 
    • Late
    • summer, Ramsey summer home on the coast of Scotland

    • o   Lots of guests- most are academic
    • associates of Mr. Ramsey

    o   Lily- a painter- like Hepheastes

    • § 
    •  Few years before WWI

    • § 
    • On
    • the first page we can already see what she does with language- multiple layers,
    • not always clear whose POV it is
  101. Woolf's style- objects
    • James
    • is cutting out pages and pictures from a catalog- the picture of the fridge is
    • “fringed with joy”

    o   Objects have feelings transferred to them

    o   Fridge= lighthouse he is excited about