Psy Ch 15

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Psy Ch 15
2013-12-07 12:43:23
Psy 15
Social Psychology
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  1. social psychology
    the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
  2. attribution theory
    • one way we try to explain others' behaviors
    • proposes that we usually attribute others' behavior either to their internal dispositions (ex: shy or outgoing) or to their external situations
  3. fundamental attribution error
    the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
  4. attitudes
    • feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose our reactions to objects, people, and events
    • often predict our behavior
    • Ex: If we believe someone is mean, we may feel dislike for the person and act unfriendly
  5. What can affect attitudes?
    actions can affect attitudes
  6. central route to persuasion
    • attitude-change path in which interested people focus on the scientific evidence and
    • arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
    • because this is deeper, is more durable and more likely to influence behavior compared to peripheral route
    • occurs mostly when people are naturally analytical or involved in the issue
  7. peripheral route to persuasion
    • attitude-change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness, and make snap judgments
    • *Leonardo Dicaprio
  8. foot-in-the-door phenomenon
    • the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
    • Ex: Chinese "brain-washing" with prisoners of war
  9. To get people to believe to agree to something big...
    • "start small and build" ~ Robert Cialdini
    • Doin becomes believing... small steps lead to big changes
  10. role
    a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
  11. the Stanford Prison experiment
    • Philip Zimbardo
    • had volunteer male college students act out prison. Some were assigned as guards, other as prisoners. Eventually, guards developed disparaging attitudes, prisoners broke down or rebelled. 
    • Called off study after only 6 days
  12. according to Philip Zimbardo, atrocious behaviors often emerge in...
    • atrocious situations
    • *Remember, people and situations interact
    • When put in with rotten apples, some people, but not others, become bad apples
  13. cognitive dissonance
    • the tension we experience when we become aware that our attitudes and actions don't coincide
    • One explanation to why our actions affect our attitudes
  14. cognitive dissonance theory
    • by Leon Festinger
    • The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
    • bringing our attitudes into line w our actions
    • Ex: when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
  15. The greater the dissonance
    the more motivated we are to find consistency, such as changing our attitudes to help justify the act
  16. chameleon effect
    • By Tanya Chartrand and John Bargh
    • Said we are natural mimics
    • we do what we see others doing
  17. conformity
    • adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide w a group standard
    • Solomon Asch conducted study involving 5 college students and comparison lines
    • *sometimes someone will give an incorrect answer (in a group) just because everyone else is giving the incorrect answer
  18. what conditions would strengthen conformity?
    • When one is made to feel incompetent or insecure
    • The group has at least 3 people & is unanimous
    • One admires the groups status & attractiveness
    • One has made no prior commitment to any response
    • others in group observe one's behavior
    • one's culture strongly encourages respect for social standards
  19. two possible reasons for conforming
    • normative social influence
    • informational social influence
  20. normative social influence
    • influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
    • *price we pay for violating social norms may be severe
  21. informational social influence
    • influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality
    • Rebecca Denton (the one uncommonly stubborn person that wont listen to others) demonstrated this when she set the record for the furthest distance driving on the wrong side of the road-explained she thought all the other drivers were going the wrong way
  22. Stanley Milgram
    • student of Solomon Asch
    • conducted the experiment involving the "learner" and "teacher", where the teacher (the volunteer college student) would shock the learner (who was acting) for every wrong answer
    • *his use of deception and stress triggered a debate over his research ethics
  23. In Milgrams experiments, obedience was highest when:
    • the person giving orders was close or perceived as authority figure
    • the authority figure was supported by prestigious institution
    • victim was depersonalized or at a distance
    • no other participants were seen disobeying the experimenter
  24. Norman Triplett
    • hypothesized that the presence of others boosts performance
    • think *driplett (last name) regarding basketball players playing better w audience of fans
  25. social facilitation
    • the stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
    • *on tougher tasks, people perform less well when observers or others are working on same task
  26. social loafing
    • by Bibb Latane
    • the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
  27. deindividuation
    • the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
    • makes people feel aroused and anonymous
  28. group polarization
    • occurs when people within a group discuss an idea that most of them either favor or oppose
    • Can be beneficial, as when it reinforces the resolve in a self-help group
    • Can have consequences, as when prejudice students discuss racial issues, they become More prejudice/ low-prejudice students become even more accepting
  29. groupthink
    • term coined by Irving Janis, who studied the decision-making procedures of Pres. Kennedy & his advisors which led to the ill-fated plan to invade Cuba
    • fed by overconfidence, conformity, self-justification, and group polarization
    • prevented when a leader welcomes various opinions, invites experts critiques of developing plans, and assigns people to ID possible problems
  30. social control.
    the power of the situation
  31. personal control
    the power of the individual
  32. minority influence
    the power of one or two individuals to sway majorities
  33. Prejudice
    • means "prejudgement" ~ a mixture of beliefs
    • an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group - often a different cultural, ethnic or gender -  and it's members
    • often involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
  34. stereotypes
    a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
  35. Prejudice is a negative ____________ ; discrimination is a negative ______________.
    • attitude
    • behavior
  36. discrimination
    unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and it's members
  37. Anthony Greenwald
    Showed that even people who deny harboring racial prejudice may carry negative association by extending Implicit Association Tests
  38. Kent Harber
    showed unconscious patronization through experiment of asking white college women to evaluate a flawed essay. If they believed the writer was black, they gave high ratings and wasn't as harsh with criticism as they were with white authors
  39. Jennifer Eberhardt
    • conducted a study that found that "black faces looked more criminal to police officers; the more black, the more criminal"
    • in a follow-up study, they found people are more willing to give the death sentence to black defendants having the most stereotypically black features
  40. blame-the-victim
    when observers assume the world is just and "people get what they deserve"
  41. just-world phenomenon
    • the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
    • reflects the idea that good is rewarded and evil is punished
    • involves blame-the-victim
  42. When some people have money, power, and prestige and others do not, the "haves"...
    • usually develop attitudes that justify things as they are. 
    • Ex: slave owners perceive slaves as innately lazy, ignorant and irresponsible - as having the very traits that "justified" enslaving them
    • *Stereotypes rationalize inequalities"
  43. Gordon Allport
    • wrote The Nature of Prejudice
    • noted that being a victim of discrimination can produce either self-blame or anger
  44. ingroup
    "Us" - people with whom we share a common identity
  45. outgroup
    "Them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
  46. ingroup bias
    • the tendency to favor our own group
    • predisposes prejudice against strangers
  47. scapegoat theory
    the theory that says finding someone to blame when things go wrong can provide a target for one's anger
  48. other-race effect
    • also called own-race bias and the cross-race effect
    • the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races
    • *To those in one ethnic group, members of another often seem more alike than they really are in attitudes, personality, and appearance.
  49. In judging other groups, we often ________ from vivid, memorable cases
    • overgeneralize
    • *Recall experiment w/ 2 groups of students, each shown pics of 50 men. The first group included 10 men arrested for nonviolent crimes (forgery). The second group included 10 men arrested for violent crimes (assault). The 2 group overestimated the # of men that commited a crime
    • Vivid (violent) cases readily come to mind, influence our judgement of another group
  50. aggression
    • most destructive force in our social relations
    • any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy, whether done reactively out of hostility or proactively as a calculated means to an end
    • influences by biology
  51. three levels of biological influences on aggression
    genetic, neural, and biochemical
  52. genetic influences on aggression
    genes influence our temperament, making us more or less likely to respond aggressively when frustrated in specific situations
  53. neural influences on aggression
    Neural system in the brain can facilitate or inhibit aggression
  54. biochemical influences on aggression
    • Biochemical influences, such as testosterone and other hormones; alcohol (which disinhibits); and other substances also contribute to aggression
    • *high testosterone correlates with irritability, assertiveness, impulsiveness, and low tolerance for frustration
  55. importance of frontal lobes
    • play an important role in controlling impulses
    • studies of violent criminals have revealed diminished activity in frontal lobes
  56. frustration-aggression principle
    the principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - and other aversive events (such as heat, crowding, and provocation) creates anger, which can generate aggression and hostility
  57. social and cultural influences on aggression
    • that state of the frustration-aggression principle is especially likely in those who have been rewarded for aggression or have learned aggression form role models, including those seen in the media, who teach social scripts that are later enacted in real life
    • Enacting violence in video games or viewing it in the media can desensitize people to cruelty and prime them to behave aggressively when provoked, or to view sexual aggression as more acceptable
  58. social scripts
    • mental tapes for how to act, provided by our culture
    • *When we find ourselves in new situations, uncertain how to act, we rely on social scripts
  59. catharsis hypothesis
    the idea that we feel better if we "blow off steam" by venting our emotions
  60. rape myth
    the idea that some women invite or enjoy rape and get "swept away" while being "taken"
  61. three ingredients of our liking for another person
    proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity
  62. Proximity
    • friendships most powerful predictor
    • provides opportunities for aggression, but much more often breeds liking
  63. mere exposure effect
    • the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking
    • so within certain limits, familiarity breeds fondness
  64. what most affects first impressions?
  65. reward theory of attraction
    that we will like those whose behavior is rewarding to us and that we will continue relationships that offer more rewards than costs
  66. two types of love
    • by Elaine Hatfield
    • temporary passionate love 
    • companionate love
  67. passionate love
    an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
  68. two-factor theory of emotion
    • suggested by Elaine Hatfield
    • 1. emotions have two ingredients - physical arousal plus cognitive appraisal
    • 2. arousal from any source can enhance one emotion or another, depending on how we interpret and label the arousal
  69. companionate love
    • what love becomes as it matures
    • the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
  70. equity
    • a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
    • one key to a gratifying and enduring relationship
  71. self-disclosure
    revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others - our likes and dislikes, our dreams and worries, our proud and shameful moments
  72. So, how does romantic love typically change as time passes?
    Passionate love → companionate love (which often emerges as passionate love subsides, is enhanced by an equitable relationship and by intimate self-disclosure.
  73. altruism
    • the unselfish regard for the welfare of others
    • selflessness
  74. bystander effect
    • studied by John Darley and Bibb Latané, found we are less likely to help if others are present.
    • Is especially apparent in situations where the presence of others inhibits our noticing the event, interpreting it as an emergency, or assuming responsibility for offering help.
  75. diffusion of responsibility
    when more people share responsibility for helping, any single listener is less likely to help
  76. social exchange theory
    • the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
    • Accountants call it cost-benefit analysis
    • Philosophers call it utilitarianism
  77. reciprocity norm
    an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
  78. social-responsibility norm
    The expectation that we should help those who need our help - young children and others who cannot give as much as they receive - even if the costs outweigh the benefits
  79. Explanations of our willingness to help others focus on...
    • social exchange theory
    • the intrinsic rewards of helping others
    • the reciprocity norm
    • social-responsibility norm
  80. conflict
    a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals or ideas
  81. destructive processes:
    social traps and distorted perceptions
  82. social trap
    • a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
    • challenge us to find ways of cooperating through agreed-upon regulation, better communication, and increased awareness of our responsibilities toward community, nation and the whole of humanity
    • *people more often cooperate when these three factors are present
  83. mirror-image perceptions
    • mutual views often help by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and view the other side as evil and aggressive
    • can become self-fulfilling prophecies, feeding a vicious cycle of hostility
  84. superordinate goals
    shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
  85. GRIT
    • produced by Charles Osgood; Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction
    • a strategy designed to decrease international tensions