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kin Final
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2013-12-06 15:45:31
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  1. What is Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)?
    What is it caused by?
    Narrowing of the coronary lumen due to plaque build up that results in the development of Atherosclerosis.
  2. Leading cause of death in the U.S.?
    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
  3. What are teh two things that Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is developed by?
    age and physical activity.
  4. if unchecked Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) results in what two diseases?
    • Angina pectoris
    • Myocardial Infarction (MI) – aka Heart Attack.
  5. what is Angina pectoris?
    Pain or discomfort in the chest,originating behind the sternum, and radiates through theshoulders, arms (one or both), neck, and jaw.
  6. what are the symptoms of Angina pectoris?
    3 things, and how long does it last?
    • Shortness of breath.
    •  Nausea.
    •  Excessive sweating.
    •  Can last 10‐30 seconds, or as long as 30 minutes.
  7. What is a Myocardial Infarction (MI)?
    what is it also known as?
    • aka Heart Attack. Occurswhen heart muscle is deprived of oxygen.
    • Blockage of the coronary artery causes decreased blood flow(ischemia); Accompanied by pain radiating down one or botharms, shortness of breath, …
    • Results in damaged heart muscle (see Figure 4.8).
  8. what is a Thrombus?
    A clog in a coronary artery
  9. what are the three benifits of Exercise training after the heart has been damaged or is known to have CAD?
    • Improve strength of the heart.
    •  ↑ collateral circula􀆟on to the heart.
    • ↑ VO2MAX.
  10. What is the Angina threshold definition?
    Theexercise intensity at which blood flow cannot meet thedemands of the heart and angina occurs.
  11. What is the defintion of Peripheral Vascular Disease?
    Vascular diseases are those that affect the arteries andveins outside of the heart.
  12. what are teh 3 syptoms of Peripheral Vascular Disease?
    • “intermittent claudication” – pain/cramping in the legs thatdevelops with activity, but is alleviated with rest. Oftennoticed in the calf muscle.
    •  Numbness, weakness, “heaviness” in affected limb.
    • Toe and foot sores that do not heal.
  13. What are the 2 things that Hypertension is caused by?
    • ↑ blood flow from heart
    • ↑ resistance to flow through arterial blood vessels.
  14. What is Systolic BP (SBP)
    Highest pressure inarteries; Occurs during contractionphase (i.e., systole) of the cardiac cycle.
  15. What is Diastolic BP (DBP)?
    Lowest pressure inthe arteries; Occurs during therelaxation phase (i.e., diastole) of thecardiac cycle.
  16. What is congestive heart failure?
    • Weakening of the heart muscle pump
    • Enlargement of the heart via stretching and thinning of the walls
    • Results in fluid accumulation in periphery and or lungs
  17. What is Metabolic Syndrome (MS)
    • A clustering of specific metabolic risk factors
    •  No universally accepted criteria for defining MS.
    • Common to look for 3 or more of the following:
    • High waist circumference.
    • Elevated blood triglycerides.
    • Low HDL (“good”) cholesterol.
    • Hypertension.
    • Elevated fasting blood glucose.
    • Having MS puts you at higher risk
  18. What is the science that interprets therelationship of food to the functioning of theliving organism?
    nutrition
  19. what is The study of factors affectinghealth and disease prevalence in largegroups of people?
    Epidemiology
  20. What does NHANES stand for?
    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
  21. whan did NHANES begin?
    1956
  22. waht provides observational data regarding the current nutritional practices of U.S. citizens?
    how often is it administered?
    • NHANES
    • every 4 years
  23. Whar Requires an individual to report their dietary intakeover the previous 24 hrs
    Dietary Recall
  24. What is dietary recall also known as?
    24-hr Recall
  25. what Requires an individual to the types and amounts offoods consumed over 2-7 successive days?
    Dietary Record
  26. What are the three macro nutrients?
    • Carbs
    • fats
    • protein
  27. Simple sugars are called.....
    Monosaccharide
  28. Glucose is a.......
    -disaccharide
    -polysaccharide
    -monosaccharide
    -monosaccharide
  29. Disaccharide – e.g., Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose
    Polysaccharides – e.g., Glycogen
    are they a simple or complex carbohydrate?
    complex
  30. what is the process of breaking triglyceridesinto its constituent components called?
    Lipolysis
  31. where does Lipolysis occur?
    Gi tract
  32. Glycerol and fatty acid are transported to…
    2 things
    1. Liver – for further processing.2. Adipose tissue – for storage.
  33. The presence of high levels of fat in the blood is called?
    Hyperlipidemia
  34. Cholesterol comes from what two sources?
    Produced in liver or intestines; Consumed in diet.
  35. The presence of high levelsof cholesterol in the blood is known as?
    Hypercholesterolemia
  36. How many different types on amino acids are there? how many are essential?
    22 and 9
  37. The process of breaking down the body’s “stored”protein is known as?
    Catabolism
  38. The process of building new structures within thebody from simpler molecules is known as?
    Anabolism
  39. How much carbohydrate does a person need toeat within a day?
    • General recommendations:
    • ≤ 5 g/kg/day Sedentary to low active people
    • 7 g/kg/day Moderately active people
    • ≥ 10 g/kg/day Highly active people
  40. How much protein should be eaten on a daily basis?
    • 0.8 g/kg/day Average “inactive” person
    • 1.2 – 1.7 g/kg/day Highly active people
  41. what percent of the body is composed of water?
    55-60%
  42. what Refers to having “normal” body water levels?
    Euhydration
  43. Dehydration is also know as?
    Hypohydration
  44. Dehydration is defined as body water levels decreased to ..... of starting levels
    greater then 2%
  45. Define
    1% dehydration [ ]
    2% dehydration [ ]
    3% dehydration [ ]
    ≥5% dehydration [ ]
    • 1% dehydration [Thirst ]
    • 2% dehydration [ Dehydration]
    • 3% dehydration [ Exercise performance impaired]
    • ≥5% dehydration [heat exhaustion, heat stoke ]
  46. What is The study of the action of forces on particles and mechanical systems; a branch of physics?
    mechanics
  47. what is the Application of the principles of mechanics to the study of living organisms (e.g.,the human body and its parts) called?
    Science which describes and predicts the
    conditions of rest or motion of biological
    systems under the action of forces.The application of mechanical physics to
    biological systems.
    biomechanics
  48. what is The study of motion with special
    reference to describing patterns of movement
    and the speed of movement for the body and/or the limbs called?
    Kinematics

  49. name the planes:
    • 1) sagittal
    • 2)Frontal
    • 3) Transverse
  50. what is The study of the forces acting on or produced by the body called?
    Kinetics
  51. Occupational biomechanics
    whats the other name and definition?
    • Ergonomics
    • The is the study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body, its movements, and its cognitive abilities..
  52. what is the name of the body position lying down face up in the anatomical position?
    supine
  53. What is the name of the body position when the body is face down lying down in the anatomical position?
    prone
  54. Medial
    Toward the midline.
  55. Lateral
    Away from the midline
  56. Superior
    Toward the head.
  57. inferior
    towards the feet
  58. Proximal
    Closer to the trunk.
  59. Distal
    –Away from the trunk.
  60. Anterior
    Front of the body
  61. Posterior
    Back of the body.
  62. What are the 3 axes of motion called?
    • frontal
    • sagittal
    • vertical or longitudinal
  63. what is the name of the axes of motion that passes from side to side at right angles to the sagittal plane (e.g., back flip).
    frontal
  64. What is the name of the axes of motion that passes horizontally from front to rear lying at right angles to the frontal plane (e.g., cart wheel).
    sagittal
  65. What is the name of the axes of motion that passes from head to foot at right angles to the transverse plane (e.g., twisting).
    Vertical, or Longitudinal
  66. These are diagrams used to show the relative magnitudeand direction of all forces acting upon an object in agiven situation.
    Free-Body Diagrams
  67. Resistance of humans moving through the air.FD α (velocity)2
    Aerodynamic Drag (FD):
  68. Aerodynamic Drag (FD): three rakings
    • < 12 MPH; FD is small (negligible).
    • 12‐18 MPH; FD is moderate.
    • ≥ 18 MPH; FD is high.
  69. Refers to resisting the gravitational attraction between the Earth andyour body.
    •  Gravity (FG):
    • FG α Total mass in system
  70. Static Friction (FST)
    • Resistance between two objects to NOT slide
    • FST must be great enough to hold two objects together.
  71. Rolling Friction (FR)
    • Resistance to an object rolling over a surface.
    • FR is often a function of movement speed – Thus, faster rollingobjects experience more FR. This force is usually very small.
  72. Normal Force (FN):
    • The force applied by the ground upward to the body in response to FG.
    • FN α FG
  73. Applied Force (FA):
    • Refers to a force applied to an object by the body. This is considereddifferent from gravitational force which accounts for the body“pushing” on the ground.
    • E.g., Leaning on a wall – FA applied to the wall.
    • E.g., Vertical jump – FA applied to ground, which is in addition to FG.
  74. Propulsive Force (FP):
    This is the net force, or the resultant force vector,
  75. Type of force that brings to surfaces orobjects directly together
    Compressive Force
  76. Type of force that tends to elongate an object
    Tensile Force –
  77. Type of force that causes an object or surface toslide over another.
     Shear Force

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