UCCS BIOL 1200 Chapter 32

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  1. What is cleavage?
    A succession of mitotic cell divisions without cell growth between divisions
  2. Cleavage leads to the formation of a multicellular stage called a:
  3. Following the blastula stage is the process of:
  4. What happens during gastrulation?
    The layers of embryonic tissue that will develop into adult body parts are produced
  5. What stage is after gastrulation?
  6. What is a larva?
    A sexually immature form of an animal that is morphologically distinct from the adult, usually eats different food, and may even have a different habitat than the adult
  7. Animal larvae eventually undergo metamorphosis, which is what?
    A developmental transformation that turns the animal into a juvenile that resembles the adult but is not yet sexually mature
  8. The first generally accepted macroscopic fossils of animals date back to when?
    565 to 550 million years ago
  9. The earliest animal fossils are members of soft bodied multicellular eukaryotes known collectively as:
    Ediacaran biota
  10. When was the Neoproterozoic Era?
    1 Billion-542 Million Years ago
  11. When was the Paleozoic Era?
    542-251 Million Years Ago
  12. A wave of animal diversification that occurred 535-525 Million years ago is known as:
    The Cambrian Explosion
  13. Vertebrates made the transition to land around how many years ago?
    365 Million Years ago
  14. When was the Mesozoic Era?
    251-65.5 Million Years Ago
  15. List the order of the Eras:
    • Neoproterozoic Era
    • Paleozoic Era
    • Mesozoic Era
    • Cenozoic Era¬†
    • (NPMC)
  16. In what era did the dinosaurs and some birds emerge from?
    Mesozoic Era
  17. What is a body plan?
    A particular set of morphological and developmental traits integrated into a functional whole-the living animal
  18. What side is the dorsal side?
    The top side
  19. What side is the ventral side?
    The Bottom Side
  20. Anterior:
  21. Posterior:
  22. Define Cephalization:
    An evolutionary trend towards the concentration of sensory equipment at the anterior end of the body
  23. What is the germ layer that gives rise to the outer covering of the animal and in some phyla, the CNS?
  24. What germ layer lines the pouch that forms during gastrulation?
  25. Animals that only have Endoderm and Ectoderm germ layers are said to be:
  26. What are some examples of Diploblasts?
    • Cnidarians (Jellies and Corals)
    • Comb Jellies
  27. All bilaterally symmetrical animals have a third germ layer called:
  28. The mesoderm fills much of the space between what germ layers?
    Ectoderm and Endoderm
  29. Animals with bilateral symmetry are said to be:
  30. Triploblastic means:
    Having 3 Germ layers
  31. Which germ layer forms muscles in triploblasts?
  32. A fluid or air filled space located between the digestive tract and the outer body wall is known as what?
  33. Animals with true coelom are known as:
  34. Some triploblastic animals have a body cavity that is formed from the mesoderm and endoderm. Such a cavity is known as:
    A pseudocoelom
  35. Triploblastic animals that lack body cavities are known as:
  36. Define spiral cleavage:
    The planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical axis
  37. Define determinate cleavage:
    A type of embryonic development in protostomes that rigidly casts the development fate of each embryonic cell very early
  38. What are the two kinds of development?
    • Protostome Development
    • Deuterostome Development
  39. Deuterostome Development is predominantly characterized by what?
    Radial Cleavage
  40. Define interdeterminate cleavage:
    Each cell produced by early cleavage divisions retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo. A characteristic of most animals with Deuterostome Development
  41. What type of cleavage makes identical twins in humans possible?
    Interdeterminate cleavage
  42. What is an archenteron?
    The endoderm lined cavity formed during gastrulation that develops into the digestive tract of an animal
  43. An archenteron forms during which kind of development?
    Protostome Development
  44. What is a blastopore?
    The opening of the archenteron that typically develops into the anus in Deutorostomes and the Mouth in Protostomes
  45. What are the 5 significant aspects of animal phylogeny?
    • 1. All animals share a common ancestor
    • 2. Sponges are basal animals
    • 3. Eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true tissues
    • 4. Most animal phyla belong to the clade Bilateria
    • 5. Chordates and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia
  46. All animals except for sponges and a few others belong to a clade of:
  47. What are the characteristics of bilaterians?
    • Bilateral Symmetry
    • The Presence of 3 Germ Layers
  48. The cambrian explosion was primarily a rapid diversification of:
  49. What is the defining feature of Ecdysozoans?
    That the animals secrete external skeletons
  50. What is the process of shedding an external skeleton called?
  51. What is the defining feature of Lophophores?
    The presence of a crown ciliated structure called a lophophore that functions in feeding
  52. Individuals in other phyla of the clade lophotrochozoan, including molluscs and annelids, go through a distinctive developmental stage called:
    Trochophore Larvae
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UCCS BIOL 1200 Chapter 32
2013-12-02 22:53:36
UCCS BIOL 1200 Chapter 32

UCCS BIOL 1200 Chapter 32
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