practice framework.csv

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practice framework.csv
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Practice Framework
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OT Practice Framework
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  1. ax oriented towards taking care of one's body
    ADL's
  2. bathing and showering
    ADL - includes obtaining supplies; maintaining bath position; transferring to and from bath positions
  3. bowel and bladder mgnt
    ADL - includs using equipment for bladder control
  4. dressing
    ADL - Includes selecting appropriate clothing; obtaining from storage area; applying prothese and orthoses
  5. eating
    ADL - ability to manipulate food or fluid in mouth
  6. feeding
    ADL - process of setting up and bringing food or fluid to mouth
  7. functional mobility
    ADL - moving around during daily ax and transporting objects
  8. personal device care
    ADL - using; cleaning; maintaining personal care items
  9. personal hygiene and grooming
    ADL - includes obtaining and using supplies
  10. sexual ax
    ADL - engagement
  11. toilet hygience
    ADL - includes obtaining and using supplies; clothing mgnt; maintaining toilet position; cleaning body
  12. ax to support daily life in the home and community requiring more complex interactions than self-care used in ADLs
    IADLs
  13. care of others
    IADL - includes selecting and supervising caregivers as well as providing care for others
  14. care of pet
    IADL - arranging; supervising; or providing care for pets
  15. child rearing
    IADL - providing care and supervision to support developmental needs of child
  16. communication mgnt
    IADL - sending; receiving; interpreting info using a variety of systems and equipment. Including writing tools; computers; call lights
  17. community mobility
    IADL - moving around community via private or public transportation
  18. financial mgnt
    IADL - using fiscal resources including short term and long term planning
  19. health mgnt and maint
    IADL - developing; managing; maintaining routines for health such as exercise; nutrition; med mgnt
  20. home establishment and mgnt
    IADL - obtaining and maintaining personal and household possessions and environment such as home; yard; car; appliances. Also clothing. Knowing who to contact for help
  21. meal prep and cleanup
    IADL - planning; preparing; serving nutrional meals and cleanup
  22. religious observance
    IADL - participation in religion
  23. safety and emergency maint
    IADL - performing preventive procedures to maintain safe environment. Regognize hazardous situations and initiate action
  24. shopping
    IADL - preparing shopping list; selecting; purchasing; and transporting items
  25. includes ax related to restorative rest and sleep
    REST and SLEEP
  26. rest
    REST and SLEEP - includes identifying the need to relax
  27. sleep
    REST and SLEEP -
  28. sleep preparation
    REST and SLEEP - includes routines such as dressing; grooming; making bed; setting alarm; securing the home
  29. sleep participation
    REST and SLEEP
  30. includes ax required for learning and participating in the environment
    EDUCATION
  31. formal ed participation
    EDUCATION - includes academic; extracurricular; and lunch recess
  32. informal personal ed needs or interest exploration
    EDUCATION
  33. informal personal ed participation
    EDUCATION - includes partcipating in classes; programs; and ax
  34. employment interests and pursuits
    WORK
  35. employment seeking and acquisition
    WORK
  36. job performance
    WORK - including work skills; time mgnt; relationships; compliance w work norms and procedures
  37. retirement preparation and adjustment
    Work - developing skills and selecting appropriate avocational pursuits
  38. volunteer exploration
    WORK
  39. volunteer participation
    WORK
  40. spontaneous or organized ax that provides enjoyment; entertainment; amusment; or diversion
    PLAY
  41. play exploration
    PLAY - identifying appropriate play ax
  42. play participation
    PLAY - including obtaining; using; maintaining supplies
  43. organized patterns of behavior that are characteristic and expected of an individual or a given person within a social system
    SOCIAL PARTICIPATION
  44. community
    SOCIAL PARTICIPATION - engaging in ax resulting in successful interaction within the community
  45. family
    SOCIAL PARTICIPATION
  46. Peer; friend
    SOCIAL PARTICIPATION
  47. Areas of occupation include
    ADLs; IADLs; rest and sleep; education; work; play; leisure; social participation
  48. Client factors include
    values; beliefs; spirituality; body functions; body structures
  49. Judgment; concept formation; metacognition; cognitive flexibility; insight; attention; awareness
    CLIENT FACTORS Specific mental functions -Higher-level cognitive
  50. Sustained; selective; and divided attention
    CLIENT FACTORS Specific mental functions - attention
  51. Short-term; long-term; and working memory
    CLIENT FACTORS Specific mental functions -memory
  52. Discrimination of sensations (e.g.; auditory; tactile; visual; olfactory; gustatory; vestibular–proprioception); including multi-sensory processing; sensory memory; spatial; and temporal relationships
    CLIENT FACTORS Specific mental functions - perception
  53. Recognition; categorization; generalization; awareness of reality; logical/coherent thought; and appropriate thought content
    CLIENT FACTORS Specific mental functions -thought
  54. Execution of learned movement patterns
    CLIENT FACTORS Specific mental functions -Mental functions of sequencing complex movement
  55. Coping and behavioral regulation
    CLIENT FACTORS Specific mental functions -Emotional
  56. Body image; self-concept; self-esteem
    CLIENT FACTORS Specific mental functions -Experience of self and time
  57. Level of arousal; level of consciousness
    CLIENT FACTORS GLOBAL mental functions -Consciousness
  58. Orientation to person; place; time; self; and others
    CLIENT FACTORS GLOBAL mental functions -Orientation
  59. Emotional stability
    CLIENT FACTORS GLOBAL mental functions -Temperament and personality
  60. Motivation; impulse control; and appetite
    CLIENT FACTORS GLOBAL mental functions -Energy and drive
  61. Sleep
    CLIENT FACTORS GLOBAL mental functions -Sleep
  62. Detection/registration; modulation; and integration of sensations from the body and environment. Visual awareness of environment at various distances
    CLIENT FACTORS Sensory functions and pain - Seeing and related functions; including visual acuity; visual stability; visual field functions
  63. Tolerance of ambient sounds; awareness of location and distance of sounds such as an approaching car
    CLIENT FACTORS Sensory functions and pain - Hearing functions
  64. Sensation of securely moving against gravity
    CLIENT FACTORS Sensory functions and pain - Vestibular functions
  65. Association of taste
    CLIENT FACTORS Sensory functions and pain - Taste functions
  66. Association of smell
    CLIENT FACTORS Sensory functions and pain - Smell functions
  67. Awareness of body position and space
    CLIENT FACTORS Sensory functions and pain - Proprioceptive functions
  68. "Comfort with the feeling of being touched by others or touching
    • various textures such as food"
    • CLIENT FACTORS Sensory functions and pain - Touch functions
  69. Localizing pain
    CLIENT FACTORS Sensory functions and pain - Pain (e.g.; diffuse; dull; sharp; phantom)
  70. Thermal awareness
    CLIENT FACTORS Sensory functions and pain - Temperature and pressure
  71. Joint range of motion
    CLIENT FACTORS Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions Functions of joints and bones - Joint mobility
  72. Postural alignment (this refers to the physiological stability of the joint related to its structural integrity as compared to the motor skill of aligning the body while moving in relation to task objects)
    CLIENT FACTORS Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions Functions of joints and bones - Joint stability
  73. Strength
    CLIENT FACTORS Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions Functions of joints and bones - Muscle power
  74. Degree of muscle tone (e.g.; flaccidity; spasticity; fluctuating)
    CLIENT FACTORS Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions Functions of joints and bones - Muscle tone
  75. Endurance
    CLIENT FACTORS Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions Functions of joints and bones - Muscle endurance
  76. Stretch; asymmetrical tonic neck; symmetrical tonic neck
    CLIENT FACTORS Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions Functions of joints and bones - Motor reflexes
  77. Righting and supporting
    CLIENT FACTORS Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions Functions of joints and bones - Involuntary movement reactions
  78. "Eye–hand/foot coordination; bilateral integration; crossing the
    • midline; fine- and gross-motor control; and oculomotor (e.g.;
    • saccades; pursuits; accommodation; binocularity)"
    • CLIENT FACTORS Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions Functions of joints and bones - Control of voluntary movement
  79. Walking patterns and impairments such as asymmetric gait; stiff gait. (Note: Gait patterns are considered in relation to how they affect ability to engage in occupations in daily life activities.)
    CLIENT FACTORS Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions Functions of joints and bones - Gait patterns
  80. "Blood pressure functions (hypertension; hypotension; postural
    • hypotension); and heart rate"
    • CLIENT FACTORS Cardiovascular; hematological; immunological; and respiratory system function - Cardiovascular system function
  81. Hematological and immunological system function
    CLIENT FACTORS Cardiovascular; hematological; immunological; and respiratory system function
  82. Respiratory system function
    CLIENT FACTORS Cardiovascular; hematological; immunological; and respiratory system function
  83. Rate; rhythm; and depth of respiration. Physical endurance; aerobic capacity; stamina; and fatigability
    CLIENT FACTORS Cardiovascular; hematological; immunological; and respiratory system function - Additional functions and sensations of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
  84. Voice functions
    CLIENT FACTORS Voice and speech functions
  85. Fluency and rhythm
    CLIENT FACTORS Voice and speech functions
  86. Alternative vocalization functions
    CLIENT FACTORS Voice and speech functions
  87. Digestive system function
    CLIENT FACTORS Digestive; metabolic; and endocrine system function
  88. Metabolic system and endocrine system function
    CLIENT FACTORS Digestive; metabolic; and endocrine system function
  89. Urinary functions
    CLIENT FACTORS Genitourinary and reproductive functions
  90. Genital and reproductive functions
    CLIENT FACTORS Genitourinary and reproductive functions
  91. "Protective functions of the skin—presence or absence of
    • wounds; cuts; or abrasions. Repair function of the skin—wound healing"
    • CLIENT FACTORS Skin and related-structure functions - Skin functions
  92. Hair and nail functions
    CLIENT FACTORS Skin and related-structure functions
  93. Structure of the nervous system
    BODY STRUCTURES
  94. Eyes; ear; and related structures
    BODY STRUCTURES
  95. Structures involved in voice and speech
    BODY STRUCTURES
  96. "Structures of the cardiovascular; immunological; and
    • respiratory systems"
    • BODY STRUCTURES
  97. Structures related to the digestive; metabolic; and endocrine systems
    BODY STRUCTURES
  98. "Structure related to the genitourinary and reproductive
    • systems"
    • BODY STRUCTURES
  99. Structures related to movement
    BODY STRUCTURES
  100. Skin and related structures
    BODY STRUCTURES
  101. The aspects of an activity; which include the objects and their properties; space; social demands; sequencing or timing; required actions and skills; and required underlying body functions and body structure needed to carry out the activity.
    ACTIVITY DEMANDS
  102. Tools; materials; and equipment used in the process of carrying out the activity
    ACTIVITY DEMANDS Aspects - Objects and their properties
  103. Physical environmental requirements of the activity (e.g.; size; arrangement; surface; lighting; temperature; noise; humidity; ventilation)
    ACTIVITY DEMANDS Aspects - Space demands (relates to physical context)
  104. Social environment and cultural contexts that may be required by the activity
    ACTIVITY DEMANDS Aspects - Social demands (relates to social environment and cultural contexts)
  105. Process used to carry out the activity (e.g.; specific steps; sequence; timing requirements)
    ACTIVITY DEMANDS Aspects - Sequence and timing
  106. "The usual skills that would be required by any performer to carry out the activity. Sensory; perceptual; motor; praxis; emotional; cognitive;
    • communication; and social performance skills should each be considered. The performance skills demanded by an activity will be correlated with the demands of the other activity aspects (e.g.; objects; space)"
    • ACTIVITY DEMANDS Aspects - Required actions and performance skills
  107. "“[P]hysiological functions of body systems (including psychological functions)” (WHO; 2001;
    • p. 10) that are required to support the actions used to perform the activity. Ex: Mobility of joints; level of consciousness"
    • ACTIVITY DEMANDS Aspects - Required body functions
  108. “Anatomical parts of the body such as organs; limbs; and their components [that support body function]” (WHO; 2001; p. 10) that are required to perform the activity
    ACTIVITY DEMANDS Aspects - Required body structures
  109. Performance skills are the abilities clients demonstrate in the actions they perform.
    PERFORMANCE SKILLS
  110. Motor: Actions or behaviors a client uses to move and physically interact with tasks; objects; contexts; and environments (adapted from Fisher; 2006). Includes planning; sequencing; and executing new and novel movements. Praxis: Skilled purposeful movements (Heilman & Rothi; 1993). Ability to carry out sequential motor acts as part of an overall plan rather than individual acts (Liepmann; 1920). Ability to carry out learned motor activity; including following through on a verbal command; visual–spatial construction; ocular and oral–motor skills; imitation of a person or an object; and sequencing actions (Ayres; 1985; Filley; 2001). Organization of temporal sequences of actions within the spatial context; which form meaningful occupations (Blanche & Parham; 2002).
    • "PERFORMANCE SKILLS - Motor and praxis skills. EX: Bending and reaching for a toy or tool in a storage bin; Pacing tempo of movements to clean the room;
    • Coordinating body movements to complete a job task; Maintaining balance while walking on an uneven surface or while showering;Anticipating or adjusting posture and body position in response to environmental circumstances; such as obstacles; Manipulating keys or lock to open the door"
  111. Actions or behaviors a client uses to locate; identify; and respond to sensations and to select; interpret; associate; organize; and remember sensory events based on discriminating experiences through a variety of sensations that include visual; auditory; proprioceptive; tactile; olfactory; gustatory; and vestibular.
    PERFORMANCE SKILLS - Sensory– perceptual skills EX: Positioning the body in the exact location for a safe jump; Hearing and locating the voice of your child in a crowd; Visually determining the correct size of a storage container for leftover soup;Locating keys by touch from many objects in a pocket or purse (i.e.; stereognosis); Timing the appropriate moment to cross the street safely by determining one’s own position and speed relative to the speed of traffic; Discerning distinct flavors within foods or beverages
  112. Actions or behaviors a client uses to identify; manage; and express feelings while engaging in activities or interacting with others
    PERFORMANCE SKILLS - Emotional Regulation Skills EX: Responding to the feelings of others by acknowledgment or showing support; Persisting in a task despite frustrations; Controlling anger toward others and reducing aggressive acts; Recovering from a hurt or disappointment without lashing out at others; Displaying the emotions that are appropriate for the situation; Utilizing relaxation strategies to cope with stressful events
  113. Actions or behaviors a client uses to plan and manage the performance of an activity
    PERFORMANCE SKILLS - Cognitive Skills EX: Judging the importance or appropriateness of clothes for the circumstance; Selecting tools and supplies needed to clean the bathroom; Sequencing tasks needed for a school project; Organizing activities within the time required to meet a deadline;Prioritizing steps and identifying solutions to access transportation; Creating different activities with friends that are fun; novel; and enjoyable; Multitasking—doing more than one thing at a time; necessary for tasks such as work; driving; and household management
  114. Actions or behaviors a person uses to communicate and interact with others in an interactive environment
    PERFORMANCE SKILLS - Communication and social skills EX: Looking where someone else is pointing or gazing; Gesturing to emphasize intentions; Maintaining acceptable physical space during conversation; Initiating and answering questions with relevant information; Taking turns during an interchange with another person verbally and physically;Acknowledging another person’s perspective during an interchange
  115. Patterns of behavior related to an individual’s or significant other’s daily life activities that are habitual or routine.
    PERFORMANCE PATTERNS
  116. Automatic behavior that is integrated into more complex patterns that enable people to function on a day-to-day basis” (Neistadt & Crepeau; 1998; p. 869). Habits can be useful; dominating; or impoverished and either support or interfere with performance in areas of occupation.
    • "PERFORMANCE PATTERNS—HABITS—EX: Automatically puts car keys in the same place. Spontaneously looks both ways before crossing the street Repeatedly rocks back and forth when asked to initiate a task Repeatedly activates and deactivates the alarm system before entering the home;
    • Maintains the exact distance between all hangers when hanging clothes in a closet"
  117. Patterns of behavior that are observable; regular; repetitive; and that provide structure for daily life. They can be satisfying; promoting; or damaging. Routines require momentary time commitment and are embedded in cultural and ecological contexts
    PERFORMANCE PATTERNS—ROUTINES
  118. Symbolic actions with spiritual; cultural; or social meaning; contributing to the client’s identity and reinforcing values and beliefs. Rituals have a strong affective component and represent a collection of events
    PERFORMANCE PATTERNS—RITUALS
  119. A set of behaviors expected by society; shaped by culture; and may be further conceptualized and defined by the client.
    PERFORMANCE PATTERNS—ROLES
  120. "Context and environment (including cultural; personal; temporal; virtual; physical; and social) refers to a variety of interrelated conditions within and surrounding the client that influence performance.
    • The term context refers to a variety of interrelated conditions that are within and surrounding the client. Contexts include cultural; personal; temporal; and virtual.The term environment refers to the external physical and social environments that surround the client and in which the client’s daily life
    • occupations occur."
    • CONTEXTS AND ENVIRONMENTS
  121. Customs; beliefs; activity patterns; behavior standards; and expectations accepted by the society of which the client is a member. Includes ethnicity and values as well as political aspects; such as laws that affect access to resources and affirm personal rights. Also includes opportunities for education; employment; and economic support.
    CONTEXTS AND ENVIRONMENTS - Cultural
  122. “[F]eatures of the individual that are not part of a health condition or health status” (WHO; 2001; p. 17). Personal context includes age; gender; socioeconomic status; and educational status. Can also include organizational levels (e.g.; volunteers and employees) and population levels (e.g.; members of society).
    CONTEXTS AND ENVIRONMENTS -Personal
  123. Location of occupational performance in time. Includes stages of life; time of day or year; duration; rhythm of activity; or history.
    CONTEXTS AND ENVIRONMENTS - Temporal
  124. Environment in which communication occurs by means of airways or computers and an absence of physical contact. Includes simulated or real-time or near-time existence of an environment via chat rooms; email; video-conferencing; radio transmissions.
    CONTEXTS AND ENVIRONMENTS - Virtual
  125. Natural and built nonhuman environment and the objects in them:Natural environment includes geographic terrain; sensory qualities of environment; plants and animals; Built environment and objects includes buildings; furniture; tools or devices.
    CONTEXTS AND ENVIRONMENTS - Physical
  126. Is constructed by presence; relationships; and expectations of persons; organizations; populations.Availability and expectations of significant individuals; such as spouse; friends; and caregivers; Relationships with individuals; groups; or organizations; Relationships with systems (e.g.; political; legal; economic; institutional) that are influential in establishing norms; role expectations; and social routines.
    CONTEXTS AND ENVIRONMENTS - Social
  127. EVALUATION Occupational profile
    The initial step in the evaluation process that provides an understanding of the client’s occupational history and experiences; patterns of daily living; interests; values; and needs. The client’s problems and concerns about performing occupations and daily life activities are identified; and the client’s priorities are determined.
  128. EVALUATION Analysis of occupational performance
    The step in the evaluation process during which the client’s assets; problems; or potential problems are more specifically identified. Actual performance is often observed in context to identify what supports performance and what hinders performance. Performance skills; performance patterns; context or contexts; activity demands; and client factors are all considered; but only selected aspects may be specifically assessed. Targeted outcomes are identified.
  129. INTERVENTION Intervention plan
    A plan that will guide actions taken and that is developed in collaboration with the client. It is based on selected theories; frames of reference; and evidence. Outcomes to be targeted are confirmed
  130. INTERVENTION Intervention implementation
    Ongoing actions taken to influence and support improved client performance. Interventions are directed at identified outcomes. Client’s response is monitored and documented.
  131. INTERVENTION Intervention review
    A review of the implementation plan and process as well as its progress toward targeted outcomes.
  132. OUTCOMES (Supporting Health and Participation in Life Through Engagement in Occupation)
    Determination of success in reaching desired targeted outcomes. Outcome assessment information is used to plan future actions with the client and to evaluate the service program (i.e.; program evaluation).
  133. TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTIONS - THERAPEUTIC USE OF SELF
    An occupational therapy practitioner’s planned use of his or her personality; insights; perceptions; and judgments as part of the therapeutic process
  134. TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTIONS - THERAPEUTIC USE OF OCCUPATIONS AND ACTIVITIES
    Occupations and activities selected for specific clients that meet therapeutic goals. To use occupations/activities therapeutically; context or contexts; activity demands; and client factors all should be considered in relation to the client’s therapeutic goals. Use of assistive technologies; application of universal-design principles; and environmental modifications support the ability of clients to engage in their occupations.
  135. TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTIONS - Occupation-based intervention
    Purpose: Client engages in client-directed occupations that match identified goals. Examples:Completes morning dressing and hygiene using adaptive devices; Purchases groceries and prepares a meal; Utilizes the transportation system; Applies for a job; Plays on playground and community recreation equipment; Participates in a community festival; Establishes a pattern of self-care and relaxation activities in preparation for sleep
  136. TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTIONS - Purposeful activity
    • "Purpose: Client engages in specifically selected activities that allow the client to develop skills that enhance occupational engagement.
    • Examples:Practices how to select clothing and manipulate clothing fasteners; Practices safe ways to get in and out of a bathtub; Practices how to prepare a food list and rehearses how"
  137. TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTIONS - Preparatory methods
    • "Purpose: Practitioner selects directed methods and techniques that prepare the client for occupational performance. Used in preparation for or concurrently with purposeful and occupation-based activities.
    • Examples:Provides sensory enrichment to promote alertness; Administers physical agent modalities to prepare muscles for movement; Provides instruction in visual imagery and rhythmic breathing to promote rest and relaxation"
  138. TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTIONS - CONSULTATION PROCESS
    A type of intervention in which occupational therapy practitioners use their knowledge and expertise to collaborate with the client. The collaborative process involves identifying the problem; creating possible solutions; trying solutions; and altering them as necessary for greater effectiveness. When providing consultation; the practitioner is not directly responsible for the outcome of the intervention
  139. TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTIONS - EDUCATION PROCESS
    An intervention process that involves imparting knowledge and information about occupation; health; and participation and that does not result in the actual performance of the occupation/activity.
  140. TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTIONS - ADVOCACY
    Efforts directed toward promoting occupational justice and empowering clients to seek and obtain resources to fully participate in their daily life occupations.
  141. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES
    Create; promote (health promotion)a—An intervention approach that does not assume a disability is present or that any factors would interfere with performance. This approach is designed to provide enriched contextual and activity experiences that will enhance performance for all persons in the natural contexts of life
  142. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Create; promote (health promotion)
    FOCUS: Performance skills EX: Create a parenting class to help first-time parents engage their children in developmentally appropriate play
  143. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Create; promote (health promotion)
    FOCUS: Performance patterns EX: Promote effective handling of stress by creating time use routines with healthy clients
  144. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Create; promote (health promotion)
    FOCUS: Context or contexts or physical environments EX: Promote a diversity of sensory play experiences by recommending a variety of equipment for playgrounds and other play areas
  145. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Create; promote (health promotion)
    FOCUS: Activity demands EX: Serve food family style in the congregate dining area to increase the opportunities for socialization
  146. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Create; promote (health promotion)
    FOCUS: Client factors (body functions; body structures) EX: Promote increased endurance by recommending year-round daily outdoor recess for all school children; Design a dance program for senior citizens that will enhance strength and flexibility
  147. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Establish; restore (remediation; restoration)
    An intervention approach designed to change client variables to establish a skill or ability that has not yet developed or to restore a skill or ability that has been impaired
  148. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Establish; restore (remediation; restoration)
    FOCUS: Performance skills EX: Provide adjustable desk chairs to improve client sitting posture; Work with senior community centers to offer driving educational programs targeted at improving driving skills for persons ages 65 or older
  149. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Establish; restore (remediation; restoration)
    FOCUS: Performance patterns EX: Collaborate with clients to help them establish morning routines needed to arrive at school or work on time; Provide classes in fatigue management for cancer patients and their families
  150. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Establish; restore (remediation; restoration)
    FOCUS: Client factors (body functions; body structures) EX: Support daily physical education classes for entire population of children in a school aimed at improving physical strength and endurance; Collaborate with schools and businesses to establish universal-design models in their buildings; classrooms; and so forth
  151. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Maintain
    An intervention approach designed to provide the supports that will allow clients to preserve the performance capabilities they have regained; that continue to meet their occupational needs; or both. The assumption is that; without continued maintenance intervention; performance would decrease; occupational needs would not be met; or both; thereby affecting health and quality of life.
  152. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Maintain
    FOCUS:Performance skills EX: Maintain the ability of the client to organize tools by providing a tool outline painted on a pegboard; Develop a refresher safety program for industrial organizations to remind workers of need to continue to use safety skills on the job
  153. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Maintain
    • "FOCUS: Performance patterns EX: Enable client to maintain appropriate medication
    • schedule by providing a timer to aid with
    • memory; Establish occupational performance patterns to
    • maintain a healthy lifestyle after significant
    • weight loss"
  154. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Maintain
    • "FOCUS: Context or contexts or physical environments EX: Maintain safe and independent access for persons
    • with low vision by recommending
    • increased hallway lighting; During a natural disaster; work with facilities
    • identified as “shelters” to provide play and
    • leisure activities for displaced people to allow a
    • constructive outlet and semblance of normalcy"
  155. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Maintain
    • "FOCUS: Activity demands EX: Maintain independent gardening for persons
    • with arthritic hands by recommending tools
    • with modified grips; long-handled tools; seating
    • alternatives; raised gardens; and so forth"
  156. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Maintain
    • "FOCUS: Client factors EX: Provide multisensory activities in which nurs(
    • body functions; body structures)
    • ing-home residents may participate to maintain
    • alertness; Provide hand-based thumb splint for client use
    • during periods of stressful or prolonged"
  157. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Modify (compensation; adaptation)
    An intervention approach directed at “finding ways to revise the current context or activity demands to support performance in the natural setting; [including] compensatory techniques; [such as]...enhancing some features to provide cues or reducing other features to reduce distractibility”
  158. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Modify (compensation; adaptation)
    • "FOCUS: Performance patterns EX: Provide a visual schedule to help a student
    • follow routines and transition easily between
    • activities at home and school; Simplify task sequence to help a person with
    • cognitive issues complete a morning self-care
    • routine"
  159. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Modify (compensation; adaptation)
    FOCUS: Context or contexts or physical environments EX: Assist a family in determining requirements for building a ramp at home for a family member who is returning home after physical rehabilitation; Consult with builders in designing homes that will allow families the ability to provide living space for aging parents (e.g.; bedroom and full bath on the main floor of a multilevel dwelling)
  160. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Modify (compensation; adaptation)
    FOCUS: Activity demands EX: Adapt writing surface used in classroom by fourth grader by adding adjustable incline board; Assist a patient with a terminal illness and his or her family in modifying tasks to maintain engagement
  161. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Prevent (Disability Prevention)
    An intervention approach designed to address clients with or without a disability who are at risk for occupational performance problems. This approach is designed to prevent the occurrence or evolution of barriers to performance in context. Interventions may be directed at client; context; or activity variable
  162. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Prevent (Disability Prevention)
    FOCUS: Performance skills EX:Prevent poor posture when sitting for prolonged periods by providing a chair with proper back support
  163. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Prevent (Disability Prevention)
    FOCUS: Performance patterns EX: Aid in the prevention of illicit chemical substance use by introducing self-initiated routine strategies that support drug-free behavior
  164. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Prevent (Disability Prevention)
    FOCUS: Context or contexts or physical environments EX: Prevent social isolation of employees by promoting participation in after-work group activities ; Reduce risk of falls by modifying the environment and removing known hazards in the home (e.g.; throw rugs)
  165. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Prevent (Disability Prevention)
    • "FOCUS: Activity demands EX: Prevent back injury by providing instruction in
    • proper lifting techniques"
  166. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY INTERVENTION APPROACHES - Prevent (Disability Prevention)
    FOCUS: Client factors EX: Prevent repetitive stress injury by suggesting (body functions; body structures) that clients wear a wrist support splint when typing; Consultation with hotel chain to provide an ergonomics educational program designed to prevent back injuries in housekeepers
  167. TYPES OF OUTCOMES - Occupational performance
    • "The act of doing and accomplishing a selected activity or occupation that results from the dynamic transaction among the client; the context; and the activity. Improving or enabling skills and patterns in occupational performance leads to engagement in occupations or activities (adapted in part from Law et al.; 1996; p. 16).
    • Improvement—Used when a performance limitation is present. These outcomes document increased occupational performance for the person; organization; or population. Outcome examples may include (1) the ability of a child with autism to play interactively with a peer (person); (2) the ability of an older adult to return to the home from a skilled-nursing facility (person); (3) decreased incidence of back strain in nursing personnel as a result of an in-service education program in body mechanics for carrying out job duties that require bending; lifting; and so forth (organizations); and (d) construction of accessible playground facilities for all children in local city parks (populations).
  168. Enhancement—Used when a performance limitation is not currently present. These outcomes document the development of performance skills and performance patterns that augment existing performance or prevent potential problems from developing in life occupations. Outcome examples may include (1) increased confidence and competence of teenage mothers to parent their children as a result of structured social groups and child development classes (person); (2) increased membership of the local senior citizen center as a result of diverse social wellness and exercise programs (organization); (3) increased ability by school staff to address and manage school-age youth violence as a result of conflict resolution training to address ”bullying” (organizations); and (4) increased opportunities for seniors to participate in community activities due to ride share programs (populations)."
  169. TYPES OF OUTCOMES - Adaptation
    A change in response approach that the client makes when encountering an occupational challenge. “This change is implemented when the [client’s] customary response approaches are found inadequate for producing some degree of mastery over the challenge” (adapted from Schultz & Schkade; 1997; p. 474). Examples of adaptation outcomes include (1) clients modifying their behaviors to earn privileges at an adolescent treatment facility (person); (2) a company redesigning the daily schedule to allow for an even workflow and to decrease times of high stress (organizations); and (3) a community making available accessible public transportation and erecting public and “reserved” benches for older adults to socialize and rest (populations).
  170. TYPES OF OUTCOMES - Health and wellness
    Health is a resource for everyday life; not the objective of living. For individuals; it is a state of physical; mental; and social well-being; as well as a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources and physical capacities (WHO; 1986). Health of organizations and populations includes these individual aspects but also includes social responsibility of members to society as a whole. Wellness is ”[a]n active process through which individuals [organizations or populations] become aware of and make choices toward a more successful existence“ (Hettler; 1984; p. 1170). Wellness is more than a lack of disease symptoms; it is a state of mental and physical balance and fitness (adapted from Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary; 1997; p. 2110). Outcome examples may include (1) participation in community outings by a client with schizophrenia in a group home (person); (2) implementation of a company-wide program to identify problems and solutions for balance among work; leisure; and family life (organizations); and (3) decreased incidence of childhood obesity (populations).
  171. TYPES OF OUTCOMES - Participation
    Engagement in desired occupations in ways that are personally satisfying and congruent with expectations within the culture
  172. TYPES OF OUTCOMES - Prevention
    “[H]ealth promotion is equally and essentially concerned with creating the conditions necessary for health at individual; structural; social; and environmental levels through an understanding of the determinants of health: peace; shelter; education; food; income; a stable ecosystem; sustainable resources; social justice; and equity” (Kronenberg; Algado; & Pollard; 2005; p. 441). Occupational therapy promotes a healthy lifestyle at the individual; group; organizational; community (societal); and governmental or policy level (adapted from Brownson & Scaffa; 2001). Outcome examples may include (1) appropriate seating and play area for a child with orthopedic impairments (person); (2) implementation of a program of leisure and educational activities for a drop-in center for adults with severe mental illness (organizations); and (3) access to occupational therapy services in underserved areas regardless cultural or ethnic backgrounds (populations).
  173. TYPES OF OUTCOMES - Quality of life
    The dynamic appraisal of the client’s life satisfaction (perceptions of progress toward one’s goals); hope (the real or perceived belief that one can move toward a goal through selected pathways); self-concept (the composite of beliefs and feelings about oneself); health and functioning (including health status; self-care capabilities; and socioeconomic factors; e.g.; vocation; education; income; adapted from Radomski; 1995; Zhan; 1992). Outcomes may include (1) full and active participation of a deaf child from a hearing family during a recreational activity (person); (2) residents being able to prepare for outings and travel independently as a result of independent-living skills training for care providers of a group (organization); and (3) formation of a lobby to support opportunities for social networking; advocacy activities; and sharing scientific information for stroke survivors and their families (population).
  174. TYPES OF OUTCOMES - Role competence
    The ability to effectively meet the demands of roles in which the client engages.
  175. TYPES OF OUTCOMES - Self-advocacy
    Actively promoting or supporting oneself or others (individuals; organizations; or populations); requires an understanding of strengths and needs; identification of goals; knowledge of legal rights and responsibilities; and communicating these aspects to others (adapted from Dawson; 2007). Outcomes may include (1) a student with a learning disability requesting and receiving reasonable accommodations such as textbooks on tape (person); (2) a grassroots employee committee requesting and procuring ergonomically designed keyboards for their computers at work (organization); and (3) people with disabilities advocating for universal design with all public and private construction (population).
  176. TYPES OF OUTCOMES - Occupational justice
    Access to and participation in the full range of meaningful and enriching occupations afforded to others. Includes opportunities for social inclusion and the resources to participate in occupations to satisfy personal; health; and societal needs (adapted from Townsend & Wilcock; 2004). Outcomes may include (1) people with intellectual disabilities serving on an advisory board to establish programs offered by a community recreation center (person); (2) workers who have enough of break time to have lunch with their young children at day care centers (organization); (3) people with persistent mental illness welcomed by community recreation center due to anti-stigma campaign (organization); and (4) alternative adapted housing options for older adult to “age in place” (populations).

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