History: Chapter 18 WWI

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  1. Indirect Causes of the War:
    • Pride in one's country.
    • Balkans region especially.
  2. Indirect Causes of the War:
    Territorial Rivalries formed as European countries took over colonies around the world. Showed Strength and pride for the colonial empires.
  3. Indirect Causes Of the War:
    Promised to aid each other if any of their allies were attacked.
  4. Indirect Causes of the War:
    Military preparedness of troop and weapons for war
  5. What was the spark/direct cause of the Great War?
    The assassination of Franz Ferdinand
  6. Who was Gavrilo Princip?
    Member of the terrorist group, The Black Hand and a Serbian nationalist. He was the assassin in the murder of Franz Ferdinand.
  7. Who was responsible for supplying the Black Hand with weapons?
    The Serbian Government
  8. Allied Powers (The War Alliance)
    • France
    • Great Britain
    • Russia
    • US
    • Serbia
    • Italy
    • Japan
  9. The Triple Entente (The Pre-War Alliance)
    • France
    • Great Britain
    • Russia
  10. Central Powers (The War Alliance)
    • Germany
    • Ottoman Empire
    • Austria-Hungary
    • Bulgaria
  11. Identify Triple Alliance (The Pre-War Alliance)
    • Germany
    • Ottoman Empire
    • Austria-Hungary
  12. Why was the Schlieffen plan a failure for the Germans?
    The Belgian Army put up a strong resistance which allowed the French to mobilize their troops.
  13. What was the Schlieffen Plan?
    • Germany’s plan to not fight a two front war Due to their location between Russia and France. 
    • Enter neutral Belgium and invade France before they could mobilize.
    • Once they took France out of the war very quickly, Germany could now concentrate their forces on the Eastern Front against Russia.
  14. How did Trench Warfare affect the war?
    The progress of war was slowed due to trench warfare. Caused a stalemate on the western Front.
  15. Describe Trench Warfare
    Type of fighting which involved fighting from ditches.
  16. What was No man’s land? 
    • The land between the two opposing front trenches.
    • Usually the front trench was surrounded by barbed wire to make it harder for the enemy to take over your trench.
  17. List the New Weapons of WWI.
    • Machine guns
    • Tanks
    • Airplanes
    • Artillery
    • U-boats
    • Poison gas (The most barbaric and unfair weapon)
  18. Battle - 1914; French stop the German advance 25 miles from Paris.
    The First battle of the Marne
  19. What was America’s role in the war before 1917?
    • The U.S. claimed neutrality.
    • They were diplomatically neutral but not financially.
    • They provided weapons for the Allied Powers.
  20. Why was the Lusitania sunk by German U-boats?
    It was carrying weapons to the British.
  21. How many Americans died aboard the Lusitania?
    128 Americans died.
  22. What happened to the Lusitania?
    The Lusitania was sunk by a u-boat.
  23. What was the Sussex Pledge?
    Germany’s pledge to not attack any merchant vessels without warning and without saving human lives.
  24. Which countries did the Zimmerman Note attempt to form an alliance between?
    What was the significance of the Zimmermann Note?
    • Germany and Mexico
    • Brought the United States into the war on the side of the Allied Powers.
  25. When did the United States declare on Germany?
    April 6, 1917
  26. Define the Selective Service Act.
    Law that required men between the ages of 21-30 to register to be drafted into the armed services.
  27. Due to their religious beliefs, what group of Christians did not have enlist in the draft?
  28. How did Liberty Bonds work?
    Americans bought the bonds from the government (a loan to the government) who in turn used the money to pay for the war effort.
  29. Food and Fuel Administration
    (and their leaders)
    • Government agencies in charge of regulating and setting the prices for food and fuel.
    • Food-Herbert Hoover
    • Fuel- Harry Garfield
  30. Private gardens that Americans were encouraged to plant in order to conserve on food.
    Victory Gardens
  31. List ways the Food administration and Fuel administration conserved supplies?
    (The sacrifices)
    • Meatless Mondays
    • Wheatless Wednesdays
    • Victory Gardens 
    • Gasless Sundays
    • Heatless Mondays
    • Daylight Savings Time
  32. What was the War Industries Board (WIB)?
    Government agency that controlled and regulated all materials for the war effort.
  33. What did the National War Labor Board (NWLB) establish?
    • 8 hour work day 
    • Equal pay 
    • Equal work
  34. What was the role of the National War Labor Board (NWLB)?
    Government agency that settled disputes in the workplace so war production was not interrupted.
  35. Espionage Act?
    Punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing serving in the military
  36. Sedition Act?
    • Made it illegal to
    • print,
    • write,
    • or publish
    • any disloyal or abusive language criticizing the government, flag, or military.
  37. Why were the Espionage and Sedition Acts passed?
    To suppress or stop any anti-war activity.
  38. Why did people oppose the Espionage and Sedition Acts?
    It violated the first amendment
  39. Do you agree with the Supreme Court in the Shenck v. United States?
    Yes because the Espionage and Sedition acts were necessary during wartime. They needed people to fight for our country.
  40. What was the ruling of the Supreme Court Case of Schenck v. United States?
    The Supreme Court ruled against Schenck
  41. Describe the Supreme Court Case of Schenck v. United States.
    Charles Schenck opposed the draft. He was convicted of violating the Espionage Act.
  42. 3 Main roles of women?
    • Nurses
    • Worked in factories
    • Hello Girls
  43. How was the Bolshevik Revolution able to occur?
    The Russian people were suffering and wanted an end to the war.
  44. Who was now in charge in Russia?
    Vladimir Lenin
  45. What impact did Russia signing the Treaty of Brest-Livotsk have on the Allies war effort?
    Germany could not concentrate its forces on the Western Front since the treaty took Russia out of the war.
  46. How did the influenza epidemic affect Americans?
    The Spanish Flu, 675,000 Americans died. The American soldiers spread it to Europe.
  47. Who was in charge of U.S. propaganda during WWI?
    George Creel
  48. Who was in charge of the AEF?
    John J. Pershing
  49. What was the Convoy system?
    A way to get our troops safely to Europe (u-boats in the Atlantic), transport ship in the middle surrounded by destroyers.
  50. Where did many of the U.S. troops train during WWI?
    Why did it take so long for the American soldiers to see combat?
    • Eastern France.
    • They were very untrained (took a year)
  51. Define Armistice.
    When was the armistice signed?
    • A cease fire
    • 11 AM November 11, 1918.
  52. What was the purpose of Wilson’s 14 Points? (Especially Point 14)
    • A peace plan
    • Point 14 was the League of Nations
  53. What was the League of Nations?
    Peace organization made up of countries around the world who would work together to make sure another war like WWI did not happen again.
  54. Who made up the Big Four?
    • US – Woodrow Wilson
    • Great Britain – David Lloyd George
    • France – Georges Clemenceau
    • Italy – Orlando Vittorio
  55. Define Reparations.
    Payments for damages and expenses of the war.
  56. Name of the peace treaty that ended WWI.
    Treaty of Versailles
  57. Why did the United States Senate not ratify the Treaty of Versailles?
    • The US Senate was split on the treaty.
    • The Irreconcilables who rejected it
    • The Democrats who wanted to sign it
    • The Reservationists who wanted the treaty revised.
    • There was a huge disagreement over the League of Nations.
    • The treaty is rejected because the U.S. reverts back to isolationism.
  58. What were the terms the Treaty of Versailles?
    • Germany was to:
    • Disarm its military
    • Pay $32 billion in reparations
    • Be blamed for the war.

    Also a League of Nations was established.
  59. Impact of WWI:
    • 14-16 million people died.
    • 7 million men disabled
  60. Impact of WWI:
    Monarchies are overthrown
  61. Impact of WWI:
    • European countries are devastated.
    • US emerges as economic power.
    • Demand for food decreased (farmers)
  62. Impact of WWI:
    • 1 million women entered the workforce
    • 19th amendment passed
    • The Great Migration (The movement of African Americans from the South to the North for work)
  63. Impact of WWI:
    • Europe lost a whole generation of young men France is in ruins
    • Reparations assigned to Germany were crippling and would cause major resentment.
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History: Chapter 18 WWI
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