Digestive System

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michaelirby98
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250263
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Digestive System
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2013-12-05 19:08:37
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Digestive system anatomy
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Anatomy - Digestive system
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  1. Digestive system functions
    • Ingestion
    • Secretion
    • Mixing & Propulsing
    • Digestion
    • Absorption 
    • Defecation
  2. The introduction of solid and liquid materials into the oral cavity
    Ingestion
  3. Breakdown of large food items into smaller structures and molecules
    Digestion
  4. Mechanical Digestion
    Physically breaks down ingested materials
  5. Chemical Digestion
    Breaks down ingested materials into smaller molecules by using enzymes
  6. Passage of digestive products through epithelial cells lining the lumen
    Absorption
  7. Elimination of non-digestive substances (feces)
    Defecation
  8. Gastrointestinal Tract
    • Mouth
    • Pharynx
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small/Large Intestine 
    • Lumen is part of external environment 
  9. Accessory organs of digestive system
    • Salivary glands
    • Liver
    • Gall Bladder
    • Pancreas
  10. Four layers of GI tract
    • (Superficial to deep)
    • Serosa 
    • Muscularis 
    • Submucosa 
    • Mucosa
  11. GI tract extends from
    Lower esophagus to anal canal
  12. Inner most mucous membrane that surrounds the lumen
    Secretes, absorbs, protects
    Mucosa
  13. Mucosa contains
    • Epithelium (usually simple columnar) 
    • -Tight junctions (prevent leakage)
    • -High mitotic rate 
    • Lamina Propria 
    • Muscularis Mucosa 
  14. Lamina Propria
    • Underlying areolar connective tissue
    • Site of most M.A.L.T.
    • Contains blood/lymph vessels
    • (Mucosa layer)
  15. Muscularis Mucosa
    • Thin layer of smooth muscleContributes to mucosal folding in stomach & small intestines 
    • (mucosa layer)
  16. The C.T. that binds the mucosa to muscularies
    Submucosa
  17. Submucosa contains
    • Many large blood vessels & lymphatics
    • Submucosal plexus 
    • May contain glands & lymphatic tissue
  18. Submucosal Plexus
    • Network of neurons 
    • Controls secretory cells & smooth muscle of mucosal epithelium
  19. Muscularis contains
    • Skeletal muscle in mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and anal canal.
    • Smooth muscle throughout rest of GI tract
    • Inner circular fibers 
    • Outer longitudinal fibers 
  20. Mixes & propels substances 
    Controlled by myenteric plexus
    Muscularis
  21. Inner Circular Fibers
    • Closes diameter of lumen
    • Creating a sphincter 
    • Part of Muscularis 
  22. Outer Longitudinal fibers
    Shorten/Widen the diameter of the lumen 

    • Part of Muscularis
  23. Responsible for the movement of food through intestines
    Peristalsis
  24. Peristalsis
    • Wave-like contractions of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle 
    • Creates propulsion of substances
  25. Outermost/Superficial layer of GI tract & 
    Contains a serous membrane that lubricates
    Serosa
  26. Serosa
    • Found in organs within abdominopelvic cavity 
    • Contains serous membrane, lubricates
    • Outermost tunic
  27. Adventitia
    • Connective tissue only! (no epithelium)
    • Outermost tunic(layer) of esophagus
    • Similar to serosa
  28. Largest serous membrane of simple squamous E.T. & areolar C.T. that lines abdominal cavity
    Peritoneum
  29. Peritoneum layers and cavities
    • Visceral Peritoneum- Covers some organs and forms serosa
    • Parietal Peritoneum-Attaches to abdominal wall
    • Peritoneal cavity- Contains lubricating peritoneal fluid
  30. Organs within the abdomen that are completely surrounded by visceral peritoneum are called
    • Intraperitoneal organs:
    • Stomach
    • Part of deodenum
    • Ileum
    • Jejunum
    • transverse/sigmoid colon
  31. Greater omentum
    Fatty substance from greater curvature of stomach and covers most abdominal organs
  32. Lesser Omentum
    From greater curvature to liver
  33. Falcifrom Ligament
    Peritoneal fold that attaches liver to anterior interior abdominal wall
  34. Organs that lay directly against the posterior abdominal wall so only their anterior portions are covered peritoneum
    • Retroperitoneal Organs:
    • Kidneys, Ureters, pancreas, part of duodenum & colon
  35. Organs within the pelvic cavity and peritoneum on superior surface
    • Subperitoneal Organs:
    • Urinary bladder & uterus
  36. Formed by lips, cheeks, palate, tongue
    Oral cavity
  37. Tongue
    • Skeletal muscle covered by mucosa 
    • Papillae & taste buds on upper surfaces and sides
    • Contains ingual tonsils
  38. The tongue is attached by
    Lingual frenulum
  39. Function of  Oral cavity
    • Indegestion
    • Digestion (mechanical & chemical)
  40. Blocks nasopharynx during swallowing
    Soft palate/ Uvula (dangling end of soft palate)
  41. 4 types of teeth
    • Incisors - Biting 
    • Canines- Tearing & grasping 
    • Premolars & Molars - Grinding
  42. Deciduous teeth
    • In infants
    • about 20 teeth
    • AKA milk teeth
  43. Permanent Teeth
    • Replace deciduous teeth after 6-30 months
    • 32 teeth
  44. Salivary Glands (Exocrine)
    • Ducts that carry secretion (saliva) into oral cavity
    • Moistens, cleans, lubricates, digests and protects
    • 3 pairs: Parotid, submandibular, sublingual
  45. Saliva
    • Mucous cells secret mucin
    • Serous cells secrete mixture: Water, ions, amylase, antibodies, lysozyme
  46. 3 pairs of salivary glands
    • Parotid ( most salivary amylase )
    • Sublingual 
    • Submandibular
  47. Largest salivary glands
    Parotid galnds
  48. Produce the most saliva (60-70%)
    Submandibular Glands
  49. Connects oral cavity, nasal cavity, larynx & esophagus
    Pharynx
  50. Pharynx
    • Passageway for food, water and air
    • Contain muscular walls for swallowing 
    • Broken into 3 regions: Nasopharynx, Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx
  51. Collapsed, tubular passageway for food
    Esophagus
  52. Esophagus
    • Extends from laryngopharynx to stomach 
    • Last location of stratified squamous ET in mucosa (until rectum)
    • Mixture of skeletal and smooth muscle in muscularis
    • Adventitia NO SEROSA
  53. Another word for swallowing
    Deglutition
  54. During swallowing
    • Soft palate moves upward closing nasopharynx
    • Larynx lifts, epiglottis closes larynx opening 
    • Bolus moves into esophagus 
    • Peristalsis of esophagus 
    • Relaxation of esophageal sphincter 
    • Bolus enters stomach
  55. Mixing chamber/Holding reservoir

    Muscular, j-shaped enlargement
    Stomach
  56. Stomach
    • Site of mechanical & chemical digestion 
    • Digestion of proteins and lipids begins 
    • Semisolid bolus is converted into liquid chyme
  57. 4 regions of the stomach
    • Cardia - Connects with esophagus 
    • Body - Principal, main part 
    • Fundus - Superior bulge, food storage
    • Pylorus - terminal part, pyloric sphincter
  58. Contains oblique muscles in muscularis
    Stomach
  59. Stomach wall
    • Rugae/Gastric folds (Expandable folds to accommodate more food)
    • Oblique wall 
    • Gastric glands in mucosa
  60. 4 gastric secretions
    • Mucus cells (protective coasting)
    • Parietal cells - secret Hydrochloric acid 
    • Chief cells - 
    • Enteroendocrine cells - secrete gastrin (a hormone that stimulates secretory activities
  61. Upper right quadrant, inferior to the diaphragm
    Liver
  62. Liver
    • Stores vitamins of old RBCs
    • Detoxification 
    • Metabolism of carbs proteins and lipids
    • 4 lobes - right, left, caudate, quadrate 
    • 2 ligaments- Falciform & round ligament 
    • Synthesizes & secretes bile - emulsifies fats & aids in absorption of lipids by small intestine
  63. Porta Hepatis
    Where portal vein, hepatic artery and hepatic duct leave the LIVER 
  64. Receives bile from liver via common hepatic duct -> cystic duct
    Gallbladder
  65. Gallbaldder
    • Muscular, sac like organ on inferior liver surface 
    • Concentrates and stores bile
    • Releases bile into duodenum via cystic duct -> common bile duct -> duodenal papillae

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