Astronomy 4
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Equation for Newton's Law of Gravity
Fsubg= G(Msuba)(Msub'b')/d^2

Kepler's Laws
 1. The orbit of each planet and the Sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus
 2. As a planet moves around its orbit, it sweeps out equal in equal times
 3. More distant planets orbit the at slower average speeds, obeying the relationship

Drake equation
Np × f life × f civilization × fnow

Scientific method
 Simplicity
 Falsifiable7
 Natural world

Angles of the celestial sphere
 Altitude of NCP = your latitude
 Zenith is 90 degress from horizon
 NCP is 90 degrees from Celestial Equator

Zenith is
 90 degress from horizon
 Point directly overhead

Kepler's Third law equation
p^2 = a^3

Newton's second law equation
F=ma

Newton's Law of Gravity
Fsubg = G(Msub1)(Msub2)/d^2

Wavelength of light equation
lambda x f = c


SurfaceareatoVolume ratio
3/radius of planet

The celestial sphere
Includes The sun, moon, and stars appear to be on a transparent globe around the Earth

Sky changes due to time
time of the year and position the sun is in can change the stars seen

Sky changes due to location
Different latitudes see different stars differently

Moon Phases
We see moo n phases because we observe some combination of the day and night sides of the moon

Hallmarks of Science
 1. Rely on natural causes
 2. Simplicity  Occam's Razor
 3. Testable  Falsifiability

Copernican revolution
Copernicus Sun centered model of the solar system
Tycho  accurate observations to test the model
Kepler  modified model to account for Tcho's observations

Kepler's Laws of Planetary motion


Newton's Law of Gravity
Tides?

Summer solstice
Summer solstice  Sun 23.5 degrees above celestial equator (more hours of daylight)

Winter Solstice
Sun 23.5 degrees below celestial equator (fewer hours of daylight

Spring and Autumn equinoxes
Sun on Celestial equator