UCCS BIOL CHAPTER 33

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UCCS BIOL CHAPTER 33
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UCCS BIOL CHAPTER 33
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  1. Invertebrates account for what % of animal species?
    95%
  2. Animals in the phylum Porifera are informally known as:
    Sponges
  3. What kind of feeders are sponges?
    Suspension Feeders. They capture food particles suspended in the water
  4. What is the central cavity of a sponge called?
    Spongocoel
  5. What is the large opening of a sponge called?
    Osculum
  6. Sponges are basal animals; meaning what?
    That they represent a lineage that originates near the root of the phylogenic tree of animals
  7. Unlike nearly all other animals, sponges lack what?
    True tissues, groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit and are isolated from other tissues by a membraneous layer
  8. What are collared cells in sponges also known as?
    Choanocytes
  9. Lining the interior of the spongocoel are what kind of cells?
    Flagellated Choanocytes
  10. What is the function of Choanocytes?
    To engulf bacteria and other food particles by phagocytosis
  11. The body of a sponge consists of two layers of cells separated by a gelatinous region called the:
    Mesohyl
  12. What are amoebocytes?
    • An amoeba like cell that moves by pseudopodia. 
    • They move through the mesohyl in sponges and carry nutrients from cell to cell
  13. Some sponges produce flexible fibers composed of a protein called:
    Spongin
  14. True or False: Amoebocytes are capable of becoming other types of sponge cells
    True
  15. Most sponges are hermaphrodites, meaning what?
    That each individual functions as both male and female in sexual reproduction by producing both sperm and eggs
  16. Sponge gametes arise from what?
    Choanocytes or Amoebocytes
  17. Where do the eggs reside in sponges?
    In the mesohyl
  18. Where does fertilization occur in sponges?
    In the mesohyl
  19. Cnidarians are an ancient phylum of the clade:
    Eumetazoans
  20. A sac with a central digestive compartment in Cnidarians is known as the:
    Gastrovascular Cavity
  21. A single opening to the gastrovascular cavity of cnidarians functions as both:
    Mouth and Anus
  22. What are the two variations to the basic Cnidarian body plan?
    • Polyps 
    • Medusa
  23. Describe polyps:
    Cyndrical forms of cnidarians that adhere to the substrate by the aboral end of their body (The opposite side of their mouth) and extend their tentacles waiting for their prey
  24. Describe medusae:
    A flattened, mouth down version of polyps, that moves around freely by passive drifting and contractions of its bell shaped body
  25. Free swimming jellies are also known as:
    Medusae
  26. Are cnidarians herbivores or carnivores?
    Carnivores
  27. What a a cnidocyte?
    A specialized cell in cnidarians that contains a capsule like organelle housing a coiled thread that when discharged, explodes outward and functions in prey capture or defense
  28. Specialized cnidae that contain a stinging thread that can penetrate the body of the cnidarian's prey are called:
    Nematocytes
  29. What kind of symmetry do porifera have?
    Radial
  30. Do Porifera have nerves or muscle cells?
    No
  31. Are Porifera multicellular or unicellular?
    Multicellular
  32. Define coelomate:
    An animal that possesses a true coelom; a body cavity lined by tissue completely derived from mesoderm
  33. Define pseudocoelomate:
    An animal whose body cavity is lined by tissue derived from mesoderm and endoderm
  34. Are Porifera Acoelomate, Pseudocoelomate, or coelomate?
    Acoelomate
  35. Are Cnidaria Acoelomate, Pseudocoelomate, or coelomate?
    Acoelomate
  36. Are Platyhelminthes Acoelomate, Pseudocoelomate, or coelomate?
    Acoelomate
  37. Are Mollusca Acoelomate, Pseudocoelomate, or coelomate?
    Acoelomate
  38. Are Annelida Acoelomate, Pseudocoelomate, or coelomate?
    Coelomates
  39. Are Nematoda Acoelomate, Pseudocoelomate, or coelomate?
    Pseudocoelomates
  40. Are arthropoda Acoelomate, Pseudocoelomate, or coelomate?
    Coelomate
  41. Are Chordata Acoelomate, Pseudocoelomate, or coelomate?
    Coelomate
  42. What kind of symmetry do Cniardia have?
    Radial
  43. What kind of symmetry do Platyhelminthes have?
    Bilateral
  44. What kind of symmetry do Mollusca have?
    Bilateral
  45. What kind of symmetry do Annelida have?
    Bilateral
  46. What kind of symmetry do Nematoda have?
    Bilateral
  47. What kind of symmetry do Arthropoda have?
    Bilateral
  48. What kind of symmetry do Echinodermata have?
    Bilateral
  49. What kind of symmetry do Chordata have?
    Bilateral
  50. Porifera: Segmentation Present or Absent:
    Absent
  51. Cnidaria: Segmentation Present or Absent:
    Absent
  52. Platyhelminthes: Segmentation Present or Absent:
    Absent
  53. Mollusca: Segmentation Present or Absent:
    Absent
  54. Annelida: Segmentation Present or Absent:
    Present
  55. Nematoda: Segmentation Present or Absent:
    Absent
  56. Arthropoda: Segmentation Present or Absent:
    Present
  57. Echinodermata: Segmentation Present or Absent:
    Absent
  58. Chordata: Segmentation Present or Absent:
    Present
  59. Examples of Annelida:
    • Earthworms
    • Leeches
  60. Examples of Nematoda:
    • Hookworms 
    • Heart Worms
    • Round Worms
  61. Examples of Arthropoda:
    • Insects
    • Crustaceans 
    • Spiders
    • Shrimp
  62. Examples of Echinodermata:
    • Sea Stars
    • Sand Dollars
  63. Examples of Chordata:
    Horses
  64. Examples of Porifera:
    Sponges
  65. Examples of Cnidaria:
    • Jellyfish
    • Coral
  66. Examples of Platyhelminthes:
    • Flatworms
    • Tapeworms
  67. Examples of Mollusca:
    • Clams
    • Gastropods
    • Snails
  68. Body plan and digestive system of: Annelida
    • Tube in Tube
    • Complete Digestive
  69. Body plan and digestive system of: Nematoda
    • Tube in Tube
    • Complete Digestive
  70. Body plan and digestive system of: Arthropoda
    • Tube in Tube
    • Complete Digestive
  71. Body plan and digestive system of: Echinodermata
    • Tube in Tube
    • Complete Digestive
  72. Body plan and digestive system of: Chordata
    • Tube in Tube 
    • Complete Digestive System
  73. Body plan and digestive system of: Porifera
    None
  74. Body plan and digestive system of: Cnidaria
    • Sac
    • Incomplete Digestive
  75. Body plan and digestive system of: Platyhelminthes
    • Sac
    • Incomplete Digestive
  76. Body plan and digestive system of: Mollusca
    • Tube in Tube 
    • Complete Digestive
  77. Porifera: Circulatory system (None, open, or Closed)?
    None
  78. Cnidaria: Circulatory system (None, open, or Closed)?
    None
  79. Platyhelminthes: Circulatory system (None, open, or Closed)?
    None
  80. Mollusca: Circulatory system (None, open, or Closed)?
    Varies between Opened and Closed
  81. Annelida: Circulatory system (None, open, or Closed)?
    Closed
  82. Nematoda: Circulatory system (None, open, or Closed)?
    None
  83. Arthropoda: Circulatory system (None, open, or Closed)?
    Open
  84. Echinodermata: Circulatory system (None, open, or Closed)?
    Closed
  85. Chordata: Circulatory system (None, open, or Closed)?
    Closed
  86. Flatworms have an apparatus called a protonephridia, what is it and what does it do?
    • A network of tubules with ciliated structures called flame bulbs that pull fluid through branched ducts opening to the outside.
    • Functions to maintain osmotic balance
  87. The best known members of the group of free-living rhabditophorans are:
    Planarians
  88. What is an alimentary canal?
    A dijestive tube with two openings, a mouth and an anus
  89. Females producing more females from unfertilized eggs, a type of asexual reproduction:
    Parthenogenesis
  90. Ectoprocts:
    Colonial animals that superficially resemble clumps of moss
  91. Lamp shells that superficially resemble clams and other hinge shelled mollusks:
    Brachiopods
  92. What are the 3 main parts of molluscs?
    • Foot- used for movement
    • Visceral mass- contains most of the internal organs
    • Mantle- a fold of tissue that drapes over the visceral mass and secretes a shell
  93. In molluscs, what houses the gills, anus, and excretory pores?
    Mantle Cavity
  94. Many molluscs feed by using a straplike organ called a:
    radula
  95. Gastropods undergo a distinctive developmental process known as:
    Torsion
  96. Shelled cephalopods are known as:
    ammonites
  97. Another name for the tough external coat is a:
    Cuticle
  98. What are the four major lineages of arthropods?
    • Chelicerates (Sea Spiders, Horseshoe Crabs, Ticks)
    • Myriapods (Centipedes, Millipedes)
    • Hexapods (Insects)
    • Crustaceans (Crabs, Shrimp)
  99. What are chelicerae?
    Claw like feeding appendages
  100. The earliest chelicerates were:
    Eurypterids (Water Scorpions)
  101. In most spiders, gas exchange is carried out by:
    Book Lungs

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