Principles of Pharmacology

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Principles of Pharmacology
2013-12-16 16:48:19

MEDIC 2013
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  1. GENERIC NAME: ONDANSETRON (on·dan·se·tron)
    • Brand name: Zofran
    • CLASS: Antiemetic agent (an·ti·e·met·ic)
  2. Drugs used to combat nausea and vomiting
    • BRAND NAME: Neo-synephrine Nasal Spray 0.5%
CLASS: Topical vasoconstrictor
    • BRAND NAME: Pitocin, Syntocin

    • CLASS: Pituitary hormone,polypeptide, uterine stimulant
    • BRAND NAME: Sodium Bicarbonate 8.4%

    • CLASS: Buffer
  6. Metric units of weight:
    1 gram (gm) =
    1,000 milligrams
  7. Metric units of weight:
    1 milligram (mg)=
    1,000 micrograms (mcg)
  8. The ability of a medication to produce the desired effect; to initiate or alter cell activity
  9. The study of the bodily absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs; medication or chemical following adminstration
  10. A branch of pharmacology dealing with the reactions between drugs and living systems
    The scientific study of how various substances interact with or alter the function of living organisms
  12. Who is given the enforcement authority for rules requiring that new drugs were safe and pure; and remains responsible for approving new meds and removing unsafe meds
    United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  13. Medications used as "off-label" means:
    • For a purpose not approved by the FDA
    • Doses different from recommended 
    • Administered by route not approved by FDA
  14. Who can approve "off-label" medications to be administered
    • Service medical director
    • Agency/Regional protocol
  15. Paramedics need to be familiar with the rules and regulations implemented under what act
    • The Controlled Substance Act of 1970  
    • The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act
  16. Reliable sources of medication information available to paramedics
    USP-NF United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary

    PDR Physicians' Desk Reference
  17. Medication information is typically compiled in a format called
    • Medication monograph
    • or Medication profile
  18. What is the issue paramedic may face when  using the AMA (American Medical Association) resource
    Not every medication has received FDA approval
  19. The recommended temperature range for the storage of most medications used in the prehospital setting
    15C to 30C (55F-86F)
  20. In regards to medication security Controlled substances require:
    • Additional security
    • Record keeping
    • Disposal precautions
    • Locked storage or held by on-duty EMS provider
  21. EMS agencies and individual paramedics are jointly responsible for adhering to all:
    • Federal
    • State
    • Local regulations
    • regarding the security and accountability of controlled substances
  22. Describe Schedule I medications
    May not be prescribed, dispensed, used, or administered for medical use
  23. Description of controlled substances
    High abuse potential
    No recognized medical purpose
    • Schedule I
    • (Heroin, Marijuana, LSD)
  24. All Schedule II through V medications require
    • Locked storage
    • Significant record keeping
    • Controlled wasting procedures
  25. The human body simultaneously begins the process of what following adminstration
    • Absorbtion
    • Distribution
    • Biotransformation
    • Elimination
  26. The action of the body on a medication is known as
  27. What initiates or alters a celluar activitiy by attaching to receptor sites, prompting a cell response
    Agonist medications
  28. Medications are developed to reach and bind with
    Particular receptor sites of target cells
  29. Receptors that are activated naturally within the body and by the presence of medications and chemicals abosored into the body
    Endogenous chemicals
  30. Exogenous means
    Originating outside the organism (body)
  31. Bicatbonate ions are able to bind with excess hydrogen (H+) ions, raising the ______ and decreasing the _______ of various body fluids
    • pH
    • Acidity
  32. Medications distribute into three primary types of body substances following administration
    • Water
    • Lipids/Fats
    • Proteins
  33. Who has the lowest percentage of body protein
    • Infants
    • Elderly
  34. What type of medication dissolves blood clots in arteries
  35. Classification of drugs contains potent antiseizure, anxiolytic (antipanic) ,and sedative properties
  36. It is recommended to administer 2 to 2.5 times the IV dose when utilizing what route
  37. The concentration of a medication required to initiate a cellular response?
  38. When two medications with similar effects combine and the resulting sum is greater than the sum of the effects of the medications
  39. The name for a drug as it is listed in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP)
    The official name
  40. What are the components of a drug profile 1-6
    • Names
    • Category/Class
    • Use/indications
    • Mechanism of action (Pharmacodynamics)
    • Pregnancy risk factors
    • Contraindications
  41. What are the components of a drug profile 7-12
    • Available forms
    • Dosages
    • Admin & monitoring considerations
    • Potential incompatibility 
    • Adverse effects
    • Pharmacokinetics
  42. Common adverse effects:
    • Nausea
    • Vomitting
    • Sedation
    • Palpitations
    • Hyper/Hypotension
    • Brady/Tachcardia
    • Respiration depression
    • Dizziness
  43. The concentration of medication at which initiation or alteration of cellular activity begins
    Threshold level
  44. The threshold dose is lower for medications with
    Higher potency
  45. Fat and lipid soluble medications require higher weight-based doses in elderly people because
    Their body fat percentage & increased fat distribution
  46. The weight-based dosing is determined by
    The quantity of medication multiplied by the patients weight in kilograms
  47. Data regarding the percentages of body water, fat, and protein at various ages become less reliable as
    Obesity and malnutrition affect society
  48. Ability of a medication to bind with a particular receptor site
  49. Agonist effects of:
    Alpha (a)-1
    Vasoconstriction of arteries and veins
  50. Agonist effects of:
    Alpha (a)-2
    • Insulin restriction
    • Glucagon secretion
    • Inhibition of norepinephrine release
  51. Agonist effects of:
    Beta (b)-1
    • Increased heart rate
    • Increased myocardial contractility (inotropic effect)
    • Increased myocardial conduction (dromotropic)
    • Renin secretion for urinary retention
  52. Agonist effects of:
    Beta (b)-2
    • Bronchus and bronchiole relaxation
    • Insulin secretion
    • Uterine relaxation
    • Arterial dilation in certain key organs
  53. Agonist effects of:
    Vasoldilation of renal and mesenteric arteries(Numeros receptor subtypes exist)