WKU Nursing_ Spirituality[1].txt

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WKU Nursing_ Spirituality[1].txt
2013-12-02 20:11:17

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    • author "Leslie"
    • tags ""
    • description ""
    • fileName "WKU Nursing: Spirituality"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Is an awareness of one's inner self and a sense of connection to a higher being, nature, or to some purpose greater than oneself. A complex concept that is unique to each individual and exists in everyone. It is multideminsional, personal, and subjecive
    • Spirituality
  1. System of beliefs and practices that a person can use to express their spirituality
  2. Holy Days
    Day set aside for special religious observance. All world religions observe certain holy days. Often special observances such as fasting, meditation, and prayer may be associated with these days.
  3. High holy days
    Solemn religious observances throughout the year
  4. Religous care
    Helping patients maintain faithfulness to their belief system and worship practices
  5. Spiritual care
    Helping people identify meaning and purpose in life, look beyond the present, and maintain personal relations as well as a relationship with a higher being or life force.
  6. Holistic view of health
    A balance of physical, psychological, sociological, cultural, emotional, development, and spiritual variables. takes the broadest possible view of illness and disease.
  7. Views the client as an active participant and the health process not just a passive resident
    Holistic view of health
  8. Three parts of spiritual care
    Physical. Psychological. Spiritual.
  9. Spiritual care: physical examples
    Saving. Massage. Touch. Procedures.
  10. Spiritual care: psychological examples
    Therapeutic communication. Understanding. Listening.
  11. Spiritual care: spiritual examples
    Presencing, empathy. Prayer . Meditating with the patient.
  12. presence
    The art of nursing, being with a patient: gift of self
  13. 4 features of "presence"
    • Getting of self in the present moment
    • Available with all of the self
    • Listening, with full awareness of the privilege of doing so
    • Being there in a way that is meaningful to another person
  14. what presence can accomplish in nursing
    prevents emotional and environmental isolation
  15. 5 overlapping concept of spirituality
    Connectedness, transcendence and self transcendence, meaning and purpose in life, inner strength and peace, faith and hope. These all circle around the patient
  16. Energy
    Helps the patient feel well and guides choices
  17. inner strength
    A source of energy that instills hope, provides motivation, and promotes a positive outlook on life
  18. Inner peace
    Fosters calm, positive, and peaceful feeling despite life experiences of chaos, fear, uncertainty. Helps people feel comfortable even at times of great dispense.
  19. Self transcendence
    Awareness of that which cannot be seen or known in ordinary physical ways. Allows people to have new perspectives and new expierences.
  20. Enables a person to Love, seek meaning and hope, have meaning in life, and nurture relationships with others.
  21. Connectedness
    Allows patients to move beyond the stressors of everyday life and find comfort, faith, hope, peace, and empowerment
  22. Intrapersonal
    Connected within oneself
  23. Interpersonally
    Connected with others and the environment
  24. Trans-personally
    Connected with the unseen, God, or a higher power
  25. Connectedness can be catagorized 3 ways
    Intrapersonal, interpersonally, tran-personally
  26. Atheist
    Do not believe in the existence of any God
  27. Agnostic
    Believes that it is impossible to know if there is a God
  28. Spiritual well-being
    Manifested by a feeling of being generally alive, purposeful, and fullfilled
  29. Agnostics discover the meaning in spirituality through:
    In what they do or how they live. Believe people bring meaning to what they do
  30. Atheist find the meaning of spirituality in:
    Work and relationships with others
  31. Faith
    Allows a person to hold a belief about something without physical evidence. Gives purpose and meaning to a person's life allowing for action.
  32. Reasoning faith
  33. Trusting faith
  34. Hope is...
    Multidimensional and gives comfort while people endure life-threatening situations, hardships, and other personal changes
  35. Spiritual growth theories
    Erickson's and Fowlers
  36. Erickson's: Trust vs. Mistrust on spirituality
    • (Birth to 18 months)
    • Spiritual well being provided by parents
    • Trust provides basis for hope
    • Love, affection, security, and a stimulating environment promotes spirituality
  37. Spiritual beliefs at Erickson's: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt stage
    • (20-36 months)
    • fascination with magic and mystery
    • often believes illness is related to bad behavior
    • begins to learn the difference between right and in
    • imitates parents spiritual or religious actions, recites prayers, and sings simple religious songs but does not understand their meaning
    • interprets meanings literally
  38. Spiritual beliefs at Erikson's initiative verses guilt stage
    • (3 to 6 years)
    • Feels guilty when not acting responsibly
    • influenced by spiritual and religious stories, examples, moods, and actions
    • models moral behaviors of parents
    • begins to ask about God or supreme beings
  39. Spiritual beliefs at Erickson industry vs inferiority stage
    • (6 to 12 years)
    • wants to learn about spirituality
    • has a clear picture of God or supreme being, morality, and difference between right and wrong
    • sorts fantasy from fact
    • demands proof of reality and believes literal meanings of spiritual stories
  40. Spiritual beliefs at Erikson's identity vs identity confusion stage
    • (Adolescence)
    • Reflects on inconsistencies in stories
    • Begins to question spiritual practices, forms own opinions, and occasionally discards parents beliefs
    • Abstract reasoning leads to exploration of moral issues
    • Spirituality comes from connectedness with family nature in God or Supreme Being
  41. Spiritual beliefs at intimacy verses isolation and loneliness
    • (young adulthood)
    • Establishes self-identity and world view
    • Forms independent beliefs, attitudes, and lifestyles
    • Uses principles to solve problems when individual's and a society's rules conflict
  42. Spiritual Beliefs at Erickson's Generativity versus Stagnation
    • (Middle age adulthood)
    • Develops appreciation of past spiritual experiences
    • Embraces people from different faiths and religions
    • Reviews value system during crisis
    • Values others
  43. Spiritual Beliefs at Erikson's: Despair vs. Disgust
    • (Older adulthood)
    • Values love and interactions
    • Focuses on overcoming oppression and violence
  44. Fowler's Stages of Spiritual Development says spirituality exist in religious and nonreligious people. True or False
  45. In this theory of development there are six stages that must follow in sequence. Each stage adding new thoughts to already held beliefs.
  46. Stage 0: undifferentiated
    • 1 to 3 years
    • Learning knowledge and emotional reactions rather than establishing spiritual beliefs
    • Repeat short prayers for praise and affection
    • Enhances toddler's sense of security
  47. Transition from stage 0-1 occurs when:
    Language and thought allow the child to use symbolism
  48. Stage 1: intuitive-projective
    • 4 to 6 years
    • Fantasy filled, imitative phase when child influenced by examples
    • Faith is result of parent/teacher teaching
    • Enjoy socialization of sunday school classes
    • Imitate behavior even if they don't understand it
  49. Stage 2 mythic- literal stage 7 to 12 years
    • learn to distinguish fact from Fantasy
    • accepts stories and beliefs
    • parents and religious leaders still influence more than peers do
    • Has the ability 2 learn the beliefs and practices of a religion or culture
  50. Stage 3: Synthetic-Conventional
    • Adolescence
    • Religions more similar than different. Can't decide if they are wrong, compartmentalize differences, or ask advice
    • Conform to beliefs of those around them
  51. Stage 4: Individuating-Reflexive
    • Young adult
    • Focus on Reality
    • Self-Identity and Worldview established
    • Religious teachings may be accepted
    • Searches for new connectedness
  52. Stage 5: Paradoxical-Consolidative
    • Mid-Adulthood(only some individuals over 30 achieve)
    • views truth from a number of viewpoints
    • Newfound appreciation for past
    • increased respect for inner voice
    • Religion offers more comfort
  53. Stage6: Universalizing
    • Mid to late adulthood or maybe never
    • work to resolve problems in society
    • may derive sense of worth from Sharing
    • May take religious practices seriously
    • have a high level of spirituality
  54. Types of problems in mid adulthood that fowler says a person may try to solve
    Social, potitical, economic, or ideological
  55. Spiritual Distress is....
    Refers to a challenge to the spiritual well-being or to the belief system but usually provide strength, hope, and meaning to the life of the patient. Causes the person to feel lonely even abandoned
  56. Characteristics of spiritual well-being
    • Sense of inner peace
    • compassion for others
    • reverence for life
    • gratitude
    • appreciation of both unity and diversity
    • humor in wisdom generosity and ability to transcend self
    • capacity for unconditional love
  57. examples of spiritual needs
    Need: for love, hope, trust, for forgiveness, to be respected and valued, dignity, values, creativity, to belong to a community, for the meeting 2 the fullness of life, and to connect with a higher power
  58. Reasons for spiritual distress
    • A life-threatening diagnosis
    • severe pain and related factors
    • abortions
    • surgery
    • dietary restrictions
    • amputation of body parts or isolation
    • death or illness of a significant other
    • inability to practice spiritual rituals in feeling embarrassed while practicing them
  59. Indications of spiritual distress in a patient
    • Express lack of hope, lack of meaning and purpose in life, lack of forgiveness of self
    • expresses feelings of being abandoned by a higher power
    • refuses interaction with family and friends
    • sudden change in religious practice
    • request to see religious leader
  60. Factors influencing spirituality
    • Acute illness( sudden or expected)
    • chronic illness( threatened a person independence)
    • terminal illness( uncertainty about death)
    • near death experience(NDE)
  61. Psychological phenomenon close to clinical death or recovered after declared death. These people are often reluctant to talk about it. But are no longer afraid of death.
    Near death experience ( NDE)
  62. Interventions for spiritual distress
    • Provide presents and active listening
    • support practices, diets, rituals
    • assist with prayer or meditation
    • refer for spiritual counseling
  63. Examples of religious rituals that provide comfort
    private worship, prayer, singing, fasting, meditation, scripture reading, communion, offerings
  64. Express a level of caring and support, establishes a trusting relationship, and learn patients view point. These are all examples of which level of the nursing process?
  65. what two things to do to learn a patient's viewpoint?
    Ask direct questions and utilize spiritual assessment
  66. The HOPE tool
    • sources of hope, meaning, comfort, and connection
    • organized religion
    • personal spirituality and practice
    • Effects on medical care and end of life issues
  67. the BELIEF tool
    • Belief system
    • ethics or values
    • lifestyle
    • involvement in spiritual community
    • education
    • future events
  68. Potential diagnoses for spiritual health
    anxiety, ineffective coping, fear, complicated grieving, hopelessness, and powerlessness
  69. NANDA accepted diagnoses for spiritual health
    • readiness for enhanced spiritual well-being
    • Spiritual distress
    • risk for spiritual distress
  70. Supporting patience to practice religious activities, helping patients in corporate spiritual beliefs into healthcare decision making, promoting a sense of peace and hope, providing resources when requested. these are all examples of which stage in the nursing process
  71. 2 ways to implement spiritual health in general.
    Health promotion by establishing presence

    Supportive healing relationships bye mobilising hope, providing interpretation of sufferig that is acceptable to the patient, and by helping patients use resources
  72. nursing process: types of implementation in acute care setting?
    Support systems, diet therapies, and supporting rituals
  73. Nursing process: types of restorative and continuing care?
    Prayer, meditation, and supportive grief work.
  74. What are the two dimensions of spiritual well-being?
    Vertical-supports the transcendent relationship between person and God or higher power

    Horizontal-positive relationships and connections that people have with others