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  1. What are 4 functions of digestive system?
    • Break down food body ingests
    • Transfer nutrients out of digestive tract into blood circulation
    • Retain waste from nutrients from the food that has been transferred
    • Eliminate waste from body
  2. What is the central strrcture of the digestive system?
    a muscular tube called the digestive tract that passes through the body from the mouth to the anus
  3. From what organs does digestive tract receive input?
    along its length from accessory digestive organs such as the gallbladder, liver, and pancreas.
  4. What are the 5 types of animals or heterotrophs that must abosrb nutrients or ingest food souces?
    • Ingestive eaters: (majority)
    •  ingest through mouth
    • Abosrptive feeders: (tapeworms)live in digestive system absorb from other animals
    • Filter feeders: (oysters) collect small organisms in water
    • Substrate feeders: (eartworms) eat material they burrow through
    • Fluid feeders: (aphids) piece body or plant/animal withdraw fluids.
  5. How are absorbed nutrients taken up?
    By adjacent capillaries (in the case of carbohydrates and proteins) or lymphatic vessels (in the case of fats).
  6. Mechanical (chewing) and chemical (enzyme breaking down carbs) are process of the mouth in digestion. What are the types of mammalian teeth necessary for such processes?
    • Incisors- snipping (grass, leaves, carrots)
    • Canines- tearing meat and sexual display
    • Premolars-specialize other functions
    • Molars-grinding food
  7. What are processes of pharynx and esophagus?
    • Through (pharynx) throat pushed by tongue move through muscle contraction to esophagus. Epiglottis makes food go down sophagus not trachea.
    • Esophagus owl muscle contractions work with gravity to push food into stomach.
  8. The stomach digests food partly by the mechanical means of churning it and partly by chemical means. What's its target?
    Proteins are a primary target of the stomach’s digestive juices
  9. Why is the stomach inner lined with mucus?
    Mucus is secreted to line and protect the inner stomach lining from acid damage
  10. Why is there very little nutrient absorption in the stomach?
    • Because of mucus protection. If not:
    • Up to 90% of gastric Ulcers are caused when the bacteria Heliobacter pylori gets under the mucus layer of the stomach and causes inflammation
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