Urinary System Chapter 6

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herangelwings
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250329
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Urinary System Chapter 6
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2013-12-02 22:10:02
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IBS 102
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chapter 6
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  1. the act of releasing urine
    • urination
    • voiding
    • micturition
  2. functions to filter the blood and eliminate waste through the passage of urine
    kidneys
  3. the work of the urinary system is done by a specialized tissue in the kidneys called
    parenchymal tissue
  4. thin, muscular tubes that move urine in peristaltic waves from the kidneys to the bladder
    ureters
  5. the tube that conducts the urine out of the bladder
    urethra
  6. the opening of the urethra
    urinary meatus
  7. the triangular area in the bladder between the ureters' entrance and the urethral outlet
    trigone
  8. each of the two kidneys is located high in the abdominal cavity, tucked under the ribs in the back and behind the lining of the abdominal cavity
    reteroperitoneal
  9. the tough outer covering of the kidney
    renal capsule
  10. the outer portion of the kidney
    cortex
  11. the inner portion of the kindey
    medulla
  12. an extension of the ureter inside the kidney
    renal pelvis and calyces
  13. location of the kidney where the ureter and renal vein leave the kidney and the renal artery enters
    hilum
  14. transports unfiltered blood to the kidneys
    renal afferent arteries
  15. four parts of the nephron
    • renal corpuscle¬†
    • proximal convoluted tubule
    • nephronic loop
    • distal convoluted tubule
  16. condition of no urine
    anuria
  17. condition of painful urination
    dysuria
  18. commonly known as "bed-wetting", can be nocturnal or diurnal
    enuresis
  19. excessive urea in blood due to kidney failure caused by disease outside of the kidney (e.g. CHF)
    extrarenal uremia
  20. condition of urine leaking outside of the bladder and into surrounding tissues
    extravasation of urine
  21. blood in urine
    hematuria
  22. inability to hold urine
    incontinence, urinary
  23. condition of excessive urination at night
    nocturia
  24. condition of scanty urination
    oliguria
  25. condition of excessive urination
    polyuria
  26. inability to release urine
    retention, urinary
  27. bladder spasms
    vesical tenesmus
  28. Htn, hematuria, and proteinuria resulting from damage to the glomeruli
    acute nephritic syndrome
  29. abnormal group of signs in the kindey, characterized by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema
    nephrotic syndrome

    (also called nephrosis)
  30. dilation of the renal pelvis and calices of one or both kidneys resulting from obstruction of the flow of urine
    hydronephrosis
  31. pyogenic infection of the kidneys
    pyonephrosis
  32. abnormal backflow of urine from the bladder to the ureter
    vesicoureteral reflux
  33. inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, and conserve electrolytes
    renal failure
  34. sudden inability of the kidneys to excrete waste, resulting from hemorrhage, trauma, burns, toxic injury to the kidney, pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis, or lower urinary tract obstruction
    acute renal failure (ARF)
  35. measured in stages of increasing severity from 1 (mild damage with a normal glomerular filtration rate) to 5 (complete kidney failure requiring either dialysis or a renal transplant)
    chronic kindey disease (CKD)
  36. stones anywhere in the urinary tract, but usually in the renal pelvis or urinary bladder
    urolithiasis

    (also called urinary calculi)
  37. stone in the kidney
    nephrolithiasis
  38. stone in the ureter
    ureterolithiasis
  39. stone in the urinary bladder
    cystolithiasis
  40. stone in the urethra
    urethrolithiasis
  41. diabetes insipidus caused by a defect in the renal tubules causing them to be unresponsive to antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
  42. disease of the kindey; a general term that does not specify a disorder
    nephropathy
  43. prolapse or sagging of the kidney
    nephroptosis
  44. inflammation of the urinary bladder
    cystitis
  45. a painful inflammation of the wall of the bladder. symptoms include urinary frequency and urgency
    interstitial cystitis
  46. inflammation of the bladder between the inlet of the ureters and the outlet of the urethra
    trigonitis
  47. narrowing of the urethra
    urethral stricture

    (also called urethral stenosis)
  48. inflammation of the urethra
    urethritis
  49. infection anywhere in the urinary system, caused most commonly by bacteria, but also by parasites, yeast, and protozoa. most frequently occurring disorder in the urinary system
    urinary tract infection (UTI)
  50. small, slow-growing, glandular noncencerous tumors of the kidney, usually found at autopsy
    renal adenoma
  51. the most common benign solid renal tumor
    renal oncocytoma
  52. also referred to as bladder papilloma. although benign when found, recurrences are occasionally malignant
    transitional cell papilloma
  53. these tumors develop from kidney cells that did not develop fully before a child's . occur mainly in children
    nephroblastoma 

    (also called Wilms' tumor)
  54. one of the most common cancers. also referred to as hypernephroma or adenocarcinoma of the kidney
    renal cell carcinoma
  55. these malignant tumors account for approx 90% of all bladder cancers and arise from the cells lining the bladder
    transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder
  56. cutting out part or all of the urinary bladder
    cystectomy
  57. incision to cut a stone out of the  urinary bladder
    cystolithotomy
  58. visual examination of the urinary bladder
    cystoscopy
  59. process of crushing stones either to prevent or clear an obstruction in the urinary system
    lithotripsy
  60. incision of the urinary meatus to widen the opening
    meatotomy
  61. resection of the kidney
    nephrectomy
  62. incision of the kidney for removal of a kidney stone
    nephrolithotomy
  63. suspension or fixation of the kidney
    nephropexy
  64. opening made in the kidney so that a catheter can be inserted
    nephrostomy
  65. incision of the kidney
    nephrotomy
  66. process of diffusing blood across a semipermeable membrane to remove substances that a healthy kidney would eliminate, including poisons, drugs, urea, uric acid, and creatinine
    renal dialysis
  67. type or renal dialysis in which an indwelling catheter in the abdomen permits fluid to drain into and out of the peritoneal cavity to cleanse the blood
    continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
  68. type of renal dialysis that cleanses the blood by shunting it from the body through a machine for diffusion and ultrafiltration and then returning it to the patient's circulation
    hemodialysis
  69. surgical transfer of a complete kidney from a donor to a recipient
    renal transplant
  70. destruction of adhesions of the urethra
    urethrolysis
  71. blood test that measures the amount of nitrogenous waste in the circulatory system; an increased level is an indicator of kidney dystunction
    blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  72. test of kidney function that measures the rate at which nitrogenous waste is removed from the blood by comparing its concentration in the blood and urine over a 24-hr period
    creatinine clearance test
  73. the amount of blood that is filtered by the glomeruli of the kidneys. this rate is decreased when the kidneys are dysfunctional
    glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
  74. incision of the urinary bladder
    vesicotomy

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